Places of Interest in Middlesex
THE first impression to-day of anyone seeing the County of Middlesex from the air before arrival at Heathrow or Northolt would probably be that of an extensively built-up area and it is difficult to believe when passing through the County by rail or road that there can be a great deal of beauty or of historical interest to be seen. The last thirty years have seen such tremendous changes, with road construction, factory building and general development, that a generation is growing up which can certainly not recall, for instance, the apple-blossom and bluebells in the old orchards along part of Chiswick High Road which were sacrificed to make way for the Great West Road; nor yet the fields and lanes of Perivale, where tier upon tier of dwelling-houses now cover the countryside instead of the wild roses and brambles which added to the pleasure of walks and picnics.
Despite continual development, there still are, however, many stretches of unspoiled countryside which have escaped the ruthless progress of road-builders those forerunners of houses, shops and factories. There are also many quiet stretches of the Thames and its tributaries frequented by fishermen.
The interests of Middlesex to-day are, however, by no means confined to these traces of its more rural past. Apart from places of great historical interest, which are dealt with in the subsequent pages and in the schedules which follow, development has, whilst devouring the fields and market-gardens of yesterday, brought its own attractions.
All the world is familiar with Wembley Stadium, which attracts thousands of enthusiasts at every season of the year. Alexandra Palace, the first home of television, is already a household word, and in the adjoining Park is one of the two racecourses in the County, the other being at Kempton Park. Middlesex is rich in excellent golf-courses, recreation grounds and open-air swimming-pools. Boating, bathing and fishing can be enjoyed on the Thames, and many greyhound racing and speedway tracks are within easy reach of the residential areas. The Welsh Harp is famous for speed-boat trials, amongst its many other attractions, and the Rugby Football Ground at Twickenham needs no introduction.
It is impossible to do justice to all these attractions or to mention the hundreds of other buildings of historical and architectural interest which have been recorded, under the provisions of the Town and Country Planning Act of 1947, as being worthy of preservation. An endeavour has been made, therefore, to give a pictorial impression of the more outstanding features of our County in the two sketch-maps inside the covers of this book.
It is natural for those interested in the notable buildings of Middlesex to think first of Hampton Court. Our survey therefore commences there and continues north and east along the southern boundary of the County to the ancient Hundred of Edmonton. Having reached the most northerly parish of South Mimms we will then retrace our steps westward through Hendon to Harefield and southward by way of Staines to Hanworth.
Hampton Court, by its size, its associations and its preservation, must perforce overshadow all other domestic buildings in the County.
The land on which Hampton Court is built was granted to the Knights Hospitallers of St. John of Jerusalem early in the thirteenth century and remained in their hands until shortly before the dissolution of the religious houses, when it passed by exchange to Henry VIII in 1531.
The monastic building was, no doubt, a commodious place, for records show that important guests, on their visits to the home of the Black Prince at Kempton, were housed at Hampton, while visitors to Henry VII at Richmond likewise enjoyed the hospitality of the Knights. In 1514 Cardinal Wolsey obtained from the Prior of the Order a lease of the manor of Hampton Court for ninety-nine years, on condition that he could rebuild or alter the house in whatever way he chose, and the advantage he took of this clause is evident to-day, for a bell in the chapel is the only surviving relic of the Hospitallers’ house, which was practically destroyed when the Cardinal’s new building was begun. By 1516 the building was sufficiently advanced for Henry VIII to pay his first visit, but it was probably not until 1520, on his return from the “Field of the Cloth of Gold “, that this luxury-loving monarch cast envious eyes upon the amenities of the palatial new house.
The pomp in which the Cardinal lived probably exceeded anything hitherto seen in royal palaces, and ambassadors from all countries were entertained within its walls. During these visits the most gorgeous and lavish spectacles were witnessed and one in particular, which was held in 1519, is recorded in some detail. After many masques had been performed, the guests sat down to a supper of countless dishes of confections and other delicacies and when supper was ended, “large bowls filled with ducats and dice were placed on the tables for such as liked to gamble “. When the party was tired of gambling, the tables were removed and dancing was enjoyed until “long after midnight”.
Again in 1527 Wolsey entertained the “grand master and marshal of France” and their retinue of over one hundred of the wealthiest of their compatriots. Never before had such extravagance in the entertainment of guests been seen. Every bedroom was provided with “a bason and ewer of silver, some gilt or parcel gilt and some two great pots of silver in like manner, and one pot at the least with wine and beer, a bowle or goblet and a silver pot to drink beer in, a silver candlestick or two and a staff torch “. Such functions were bound to influence the jealous King, but, although the Cardinal surrendered his lease before his downfall, this generous action, as we know, did not save him from ruin.
From 1529, when Henry VIII took up residence in Hampton Court, it continued to be a popular resort of the reigning monarchs until the death of George II’s consort, and although from that date to the present time it has remained as a possession of the Crown, it has never again been a royal residence. In 1531 when he formally took possession of the Palace, Henry made various alterations and additions the most notable being the building of the Great Hall.
When Henry VIII, Queen Catherine and the Princess Mary took up their residence at Hampton, Anne Boleyn was also given lodgings there, so that when later Henry sent Catherine away, he was able to continue uninterruptedly his courtship of Anne in the Palace and its beautiful grounds.
On the birth of Prince Edward in 1537, so elaborate a ceremony was enacted that the excitement of it is said to have hastened the death of his mother, Jane Seymour.
Henry’s love of sport is exemplified by the tennis-court which was built shortly after his arrival and still exists, and the formation of a chase as a hunting ground over lands in adjoining manors in Surrey, which formed the Honour of Hampton Court.
Henry spent most of his married life with Catherine Howard at Hampton, whence that ill-fated consort was sent to Syon House before her execution on the 13th of February, 1542. The haunted gallery is so called from the fact that Catherine’s ghost is said to run shrieking along it.
Edward VI lived at Hampton during most of his short reign, and in 1549 the Palace was put into a state of defence on account of the plot against the Protector Somerset.
Hampton Court continued to be the popular residence of Queen Mary after her marriage with Philip of Spain and subsequently of Queen Elizabeth, who, however, in 1562 nearly succumbed there to a serious attack of smallpox.
James I usually arranged to spend Christmas at the Palace, when great revelries took place. It was in this reign that the famous Hampton Court ecclesiastical conference took place in 1604, between the clergy of the Established Church of England and the Puritans; it was held at the instigation of the King to try to settle differences and effect a compromise and though it failed in this purpose, one positive result was a new translation of the Bible, the Authorized Version, still in use to-day. James’ son, Charles, also enjoyed prolonged visits there. In sadder circumstances, when taken prisoner by the Parliamentary army in 1647, he was permitted to use Hampton Court as his place of imprisonment, and his children were allowed to visit him until his escape some three months later.
In October 1651, Cromwell installed himself at Hampton, though two years later the property was sold to John Phelps. It was, however, re-conveyed to Cromwell in 1654, and until his death the Protector constantly used the Palace as his place of residence. In 1657 a plot was hatched to murder him, and the accomplices decided to carry out their nefarious act while he was travelling between Whitehall and Hampton, but the plot was discovered before it could be put into effect.
At the Restoration, Charles II undertook many alterations to the Palace which he made his permanent home, and it was there that his honeymoon with Catherine of Braganza was spent. The untoward scenes which were witnessed when the King insisted on introducing the notorious Lady Castlemaine into the Household are vividly depicted by contemporary diarists and historians. Pepys and Evelyn have described their visits.
The Palace does not appear to have been a popular resort of James II, but William of Orange and his Queen, after their accession, immediately decided to rebuild it. Their original purpose was to rebuild the whole palace, but in fact the west part was left intact, and the work of Christopher Wren is now to be seen chiefly in Fountain Court, which stands, together with the lay-out of the gardens and avenue, as a monument to “Dutch William” and his consort. The Queen took the greatest personal interest in arranging the elaborate decorations which may still be seen, although unfortunately she died in 1694 before she could enjoy the full benefits of her work. William’s final alterations and improvements were, similarly, not finished until after his death in 1702, following a riding accident when his favourite horse, Sorrel, stumbled on a molehill in the park at Hampton Court and threw him.
The heavy expenditure on rebuilding necessitated Queen Anne taking over her inheritance greatly encumbered with debt, but she enjoyed as much time as possible there, and held many of her council meetings in the Cartoon Gallery.
Hampton Court appealed especially to George I, but, during his absence in Hanover, the Prince of Wales and his Princess entertained on so lavish a scale that the Palace fell somewhat into disrepute, and George II spent only the early years of his reign in residence there. On the death of Queen Caroline in 1737, he gave up residence, and shortly after the accession of George III it was turned into apartments for persons who had done good service to the Crown or State. The State apartments were opened to the public two years after Queen Victoria came to the throne.
The building as it stands to-day provides perhaps the most perfect example of Tudor architecture, combined with Wren’s domestic work at its best. The pictures which are to be seen there are sometimes criticized, but the ceilings, fireplaces, doorways and other fittings are some of the most beautiful of their kind to be found anywhere. It was indeed fortunate that all these, with the exception of some tapestries of little value, escaped damage or destruction when a fire broke out in November 1952, in a part of the building which was being converted into living quarters.
Apart from Hampton Court there are other interesting houses at Hampton and of these Faraday House, presented to Professor Faraday the famous scientist, and the old Court House, leased to and remodelled by Wren, who died there, are especially notable. There is also Hampton House, altered for David Garrick by Robert Adam and alternatively known as “Garrick’s Villa “, with the Temple he erected in the garden in honour of Shakespeare: the latter, with the garden, was purchased by Twickenham Corporation before the second world war for permanent preservation. “St. Albans “, which stands on the river bank, is said to have been built for Nell Gwynn, the favourite of Charles II, or for their son, the first Duke of St. Albans.
Part of the Manor of Twickenham was given to the monks of Christchurch, Canterbury, in whose hands it remained until the Dissolution, after which it became Crown property and was settled on Catherine of Aragon and subsequently on Catherine of Braganza, both of whom resided there. Queen Anne, while Princess of Denmark, lived at Twickenham, in a house which was later occupied by the unfortunate Queen Caroline. In the same parish is York House, which was the residence of the famous Lord Clarendon, Lord Chancellor to Charles II, and subsequently of his son, Lawrence, Earl of Rochester. Charles II probably resided there, as did his brother, James II, when Duke of York. Prince Stahremberg, Envoy Extraordinary from the Court of Vienna, lived there at the beginning of the last century and in 1864 it was occupied by the Comte de Paris, grandson of Louis Philippe, King of France. The house is now used as the municipal offices.
Twickenham Park, demolished some years ago, was the home of Edward Bacon, and later of his half-brother, Sir Francis, who entertained Queen Elizabeth there and presented her with a sonnet in praise of the Earl of Essex.
One of the most remarkable houses in the County must indeed be Strawberry Hill, which was originally built by the Earl of Bradford’s coachman in 1698, and was sold by him to Colly Cibber, the famous actor and dramatist. In 1747 Horace Walpole (afterwards Earl of Orford) bought it and in 1753 began to refashion it in what was to become the latest craze of Gothic architecture. It is now used as a Roman Catholic teachers’ training college, and stands as perhaps the most influential of the early Gothic Revival buildings. It gave its name to a style of architecture known as “Strawberry Hill Gothic “, the merit of which is greatly disputed to-day, though its former popularity is evidenced by the work of countless architects who copied the style in the last century.
Another Twickenham landmark is Kneller Hall, which the famous artist, Sir Godfrey Kneller, had built as a residence in 1709-Il. The present structure, in a neo-Jacobean style dating from 1848, has since 1856 housed the Royal Military School of Music. In the grounds the remains of an old moat are to be found.
Orleans House was the residence for some fifteen years after 1800 of Louis Philippe, Duc d’Orléans, before he became King of France, and afterwards of his son, the Duc d’Aumale. It was pulled down in 1927, though the octagon room, by Gibbs, built for the entertainment of Queen Caroline on her visits from Hampton Court, still survives.
Though Pope’s villa in Crossdeep, the scene of many literary gatherings, has gone, the Grotto he constructed survives, in an altered form, as a subway under the road.
Marble Hill, built by George II for his mistress, Henrietta Howard, Countess of Suffolk, was later the residence of John Gay of Beggar’s Opera fame, of Mrs. Fitzherbert, and of the Marquis of Wellesley, Governor-General of India. The grounds were originally laid out by Pope, though the present house dates only from 1783.
The Bridgettine Abbey, which was founded by Henry V at Twickenham, and which was moved to the site of Syon House in Isleworth in 1431, was one of the first of the religious houses to be dissolved by Henry VIII. Syon House received the unfortunate Catherine Howard the night before her execution in the Tower and the body of Henry VIII rested there prior to his sumptuous funeral at Windsor.
The property was granted to Lord Protector Somerset and, following his attainder in 1552, it was acquired by John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland. It was here that Lady Jane Grey, who had married the Duke’s son, was formally offered the crown and, though reluctant, was conveyed to the Tower and proclaimed Queen.
After Northumberland’s attainder, Queen Mary restored the nunnery, which was, however, again dissolved by Queen Elizabeth, who in 1602 leased the property to Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland, to whom it was subsequently granted by James I in 1604.
Algernon, the tenth Earl, sided with Parliament and it was at Syon that Cromwell and the army leaders met and decided to march on London and depose the King. Charles’s children were placed in the Earl’s care by Parliament, and they were visited by their father when a prisoner at Hampton Court. The tenth Earl restored the house in 1659, though incorporating much of the old abbey. It was reconstructed in 1760 by Robert Adam, and re-cased and substantially altered in 1826.
Perhaps one of the most notable properties in the County is Osterley Park, in the parish of Heston. Osterley originally formed part of a marshy forest which spread over that part of the County. In the sixteenth century, it was bequeathed to the Prior and Convent of Sheen and was subsequently transferred to the Abbess and Convent of Syon. On the dissolution of the monasteries the property came successively into the hands of the Marquis of Exeter and Duke of Somerset, but after the attainder of the latter it passed into the hands of Sir Thomas Gresham, Founder of the Royal Exchange, who built a house there which was finished in about 1570 and of which the stables still exist. The sessions records tell the story of a disturbance in the park while Queen Elizabeth and her Court were actually staying in the house in 1576, ” to the very great disquiet and disturbance of the Lady the Queen “.
On the death of Sir Thomas Gresham in 1598, Osterley passed from his widow to her son by a previous marriage, Sir William Reade. Later, it was held successively by the famous jurist, Sir Edward Coke, George, Earl of Desmond, and Sir William Waller, the celebrated Parliamentary General whose daughter Anne married Sir Philip Harcourt.
It was not until 1711 that Sir Francis Child, the banker, bought Osterley, but he died two years later, when he was succeeded by his son—another Sir Francis who died in 1740 without issue. His brother Samuel inherited, and left two Sons who were infants at the time of his death in 1752. Francis the elder died shortly after attaining his majority, when the property came to Robert his brother. Very shortly after inheriting the estate, Robert commissioned the Adam brothers to rebuild the house and it is now in much the same condition as when it was completed by these famous architects.
Robert Child had an only daughter Sarah, the heroine of one of the most romantic elopements of the eighteenth century. Different versions of the story of her flight to Gretna Green with Lord Westmorland, hotly pursued by her enraged father, are given in many contemporary pamphlets. The property passed by the will of Robert Child to his granddaughter Sarah, daughter of the Earl of Westmorland. She subsequently married George Villiers, fifth Earl of Jersey. Osterley remained in the possession of the Jersey family from that date until its conveyance to the National Trust in 1947.
Southall Manor House in Norwood was built in 1587 by a member of the Awsiter family, London merchants, and much of the original timber work still remains. It now belongs to the Southall Borough Council and is used as an infant welfare centre.
Probably the most popular residential neighbourhoods two centuries ago were Ealing and Chiswick, although the Wells at Acton attracted fashionable visitors during the eighteenth century.
At Ealing, the Duke of Kent, father of Queen Victoria, had a villa on Castle Bar Hill, which had at one time belonged to the famous Mrs. Fitzherbert. Gunnersbury Park House was purchased by Princess Amelia, aunt to George III, in 1761. Nothing is left of the original house by Inigo Jones, which was demolished in 1801, but near the pond there is a large temple, dating from the time when Princess Amelia lived there. This estate was bought by the Ealing and Acton Borough Councils, with the aid of a grant from the County Council. The nineteenth-century house is now in use as the Gunnersbury Museum.
At Brentford is Boston House, which was re-built in 1622 by Mary, wife of Sir William Reade, and contains some fine specimens of plaster ceilings, carved fireplaces and the original’ staircase. The Clitherow family bought it in 1670, restored it, and owned it till 1927. The grounds have now been acquired as a permanent open space, and a part of the house is used as an infants’ school.
Chiswick House, a Palladian villa, was the home of Lord Burlington and later of the Dukes of Devonshire, in whose hands it remained until acquired by the Borough Council in 1929. Charles James Fox and George Canning both died here. The building has been handed over to the Ministry of Works, for preservation as an ancient monument.
Hogarth House was for many years the home of the famous artist. In 1902, when the building was about to be sold and demolished, Colonel Shipway purchased the property, and presented it in trust to the Middlesex County Council in 1909 for the benefit of the public. In 1940 the house suffered extensive bomb damage and had to be closed, but it was carefully restored with the use of existing material and the outbuildings converted and was re-opened to the public as a Hogarth museum in 1951.
The Manor of Willesden belonged to the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul’s, and in the last century passed from that body to the Church Commissioners. Originally it was divided into many prebends, and the profits of each prebend went towards the support of one of the prebendaries of the Cathedral.
Highgate was much favoured as a residential district during the last three hundred years. Cromwell House, on the north-east side of Highgate Hill, was built about 1630 by one of the Sprignell family, and although a fire greatly damaged it in 1865, it is still a good example of the architecture of the period, and there are sufficient examples of old carved woodwork left for one to appreciate its original beauty. The staircase is one of the most remarkable examples of its kind in the country. Highgate School was founded about 1565 by Sir Roger Cholmley, Chief Justice of the Queen’s Bench, but none of the original buildings survive.
Tottenham enjoyed associations with the early Kings of Scotland, who, as Earls of Huntingdon, held the manor from the time of King David I until it was divided up in 1254 between the co-heirs, namely, Robert Bruce and John Baliol, the two claimants to the Scottish throne. The latter manor subsequently became known as Dawbeneys. It is believed that David I founded the church of All Hallows.
The Elizabethan manor house known as Bruce Castle, which stands near the site of the ancient castellated mansion of that name, acquired in the reign of Henry VIII by Sir William Compton, was built in the late sixteenth century. Henry met his sister Margaret, Queen of Scots, at the castle in 1516, and Queen Elizabeth visited it in 1578. Lord Coleraine carried out alterations in the seventeenth century and rebuilt the two wings. The castle was bought in 5827 by Sir Rowland Hill (who introduced penny postage) and by his brother, and was used by them for a private school, organized on “modern progressive principles “. The building is now used as a borough museum. A sixteenth-century circular brick tower, of military appearance, but of no known purpose, stands nearby.
Priory House, on the site of the Priory at Tottenham, and now the vicarage, was built about 1620 by Joseph Fenton, a barber-surgeon in the City of London.
The Sanctus Bell at Tottenham Old Parish Church is said to have been the alarm bell of the garrison at Quebec, and taken from there at the time of the siege in 1759.
Edmonton is immortalized by Cowper’s vivid description of John Gilpin’s holiday jaunt, but those who go there with the hope of seeing the original ” Bell” Inn in Fore Street will be disappointed, for a new inn of the same name has been built on the site which recent research has substantiated as being that of the original inn of Cowper’s poem.
Salisbury House, in Bury Street, a timber-framed manor house, is the only one remaining of the many important houses which formerly existed in Edmonton.
Edmonton also has memories of Izaak Walton and Charles Lamb. The cottage where Lamb and his sister lived in 1833-4, though altered and refaced, still stands just north-east of the churchyard where he and his sister Mary are buried.
There are several large houses round the green in Southgate Village. Broomfield Park House, circa seventeenth-century, a half-timbered house in Enfield Chase, decorated with paintings ascribed to Thornhill and with a fine oak staircase, is now a museum; Amos Grove, an eighteenth-century house of brick, between modern wings, was the home of the Walker family of cricketing fame; and Grovelands, built by Nash in 1798, is now a hospital.
Enfield was the site of the only fortified residence known to have existed in the County. Humphrey de Bohun, who had inherited his estates from Geoffrey de Mandeville, had licence to fortify it in 1347. Enfield Manor and Chase were vested in the Duchy of Lancaster from 1400 until the land was disafforested and enclosed in 1777. The lodges in the Chase, which was a royal hunting-ground, were subsequently much in demand. An original lease dated 1753, granting South Bailey Lodge to William Pitt, is now preserved among the County records.
Enfield Palace, the original manor house, was granted to Elizabeth, who spent part of her childhood here before she became Queen. Her arms can be seen on the panelling, which has been preserved, together with other relics, and reset in a house in Gentleman’s Row, the owner of which purchased them for the borough on the destruction of the Palace in 1927. It was in the Palace that Elizabeth and Edward VI heard of their father’s death.
There are many monuments in Enfield: the Grammar School is one of the oldest school buildings in the County; Eagle House, in the High Street, an eighteenth-century brick building, has a fine gate; White Webbs, associated with Jesuits and the Gunpowder Plot, has now been replaced by a nineteenth-century house which is a home for aged people. The old manor house of Durants, which was burned down in the eighteenth century, was associated with Judge Jeffreys. Trent Park, built by Sir Richard Jebb, favourite doctor of George III, was called after the place in the Tyrol where the King’s brother, the Duke of Gloucester, had recovered from an illness. It was rebuilt in 1894 and it is now used as a teachers’ training college.
South Mimms has four important secular monuments. Wyllyots Manor Farm, a sixteenth-century building, was named after a family who owned the land in 1346. It was for a long time held by the Brewers’ Company, until privately purchased in 1924 and restored. It was acquired by Potters Bar Urban District Council during the second world war, and is now used for offices.
Knightsland Farm, another sixteenth-century house, was the home of the unfortunate Admiral Byng before Wrotham Park was built. In 1754, a fire at Wrotham, achieved what the mob, at the time of the trial of the Admiral for alleged cowardice, had failed to do, and the interior of the house was destroyed, though the pictures were saved. It was subsequently restored and has since been occupied by the Byng family, successively Earls of Strafford. The County Council now has a reversionary interest in the property.
Dyrham Park was originally the home of the Durham family. The heiress of John Durham married Thomas Frowyke in the reign of Edward III, and the house remained in the family until purchased by the Trotters in 1798. This family rebuilt the mansion in 1800 in the classical style, with Tuscan columns, after it had been destroyed by fire. The entrance gateway is said to have been the triumphal arch which was erected in London by General Monk at the time of the Restoration in 166o. The property is owned by the County Council.
The manor of Hendon belonged to the Abbot of Westminster, and it was here that Cardinal Wolsey rested for the night on his way north to Leicester Abbey, where he died. In 1550 the Crown granted the manor to William Herbert, Earl of Pembroke. In the eighteenth century David Garrick was Lord of the Manor, and lived at Hendon Hall (or Hendon Place), which has since been modernized and is now an hotel. The most important individual piece of architecture is the Corinthian style portico, which was originally at Canons. On the hill nearby the obelisk which Garrick erected as a memorial to Shakespeare is still standing.
Little Stanmore, which bears the alternative name of Whitchurch, originally belonged to the Priory of St. Bartholomew, but came in the eighteenth century to James Brydges, who was created Duke of Chandos, that “princely nobleman “, as he is described by contemporaries. He had been Paymaster-General to Marlborough’s armies and had amassed a fabulous fortune. In 1712 he started to build his great mansion at Canons, at a cost of over 250,000 pounds, a sum which in these days would be worth many times that amount. His living is said to have corresponded to the magnificence of his mansion, but, such was the cost of its upkeep, that on his death in 1744 no purchaser could be found and the buildings were pulled down and the materials sold by auction. The present villa was erected in its place. The statue of George II which was removed from the grounds now stands in Golden Square. The site of Canons was sold to William Hallet, whose grandson conveyed it to Dennis O’Kelley, the owner of the famous racehorse “Eclipse “, in honour of which one of the most valuable races is now run annually at Sandown Park. Chandos was a great lover of music, and he installed Handel as his “chapel master” at Canons. It was during his occupation of this post that he wrote some of his best known works. The present house was acquired by a girls’ school in 1929. In 1936, Harrow Urban District Council purchased the lake and fifty acres and laid out the garden as a memorial to King George V. The remainder of the property has been developed as a building estate.
Harrow belonged to the Archbishop of Canterbury at the time of the making of the Domesday survey, and there can be no doubt that a country seat existed there to which succeeding Archbishops resorted when their presence near London was essential or when travelling northwards. A great deal of the Harrow property was surrendered by Cranmer to Henry VIII, who granted this to Sir Edward, afterwards Lord North, from whom it eventually passed to Sir John Rushout, ancestor of the late Lord Northwick. In 1170 Thomas a Becket stayed for a few days at Harrow shortly before his murder at Canterbury.
Harrow School was founded by John Lyon as a free grammar school. The original rules, which are still preserved, decreed that recreations were to be confined to “driving a top, tossing a handball, running and shooting “. For the last-mentioned sport it was laid down that the parents were to provide “bowstrings, shafts and bresters “. Archery was regularly practised at the school until the beginning of the last century, and the school coat-of-arms has crossed arrows, no doubt in commemoration of the school’s activities in this direction.
Headstone Manor House in Pinner was once a residence of the Archbishop of Canterbury. The ” chapel block” still survives, and is supposed to have been the Archbishop’s private chapel. The site has been acquired by the Harrow Urban District Council, and the grounds are used for public recreation. The old barn is sometimes used as a theatre.
Bentley Priory in Harrow Weald marks the site of an early Roman settlement to which attention has already been directed. It was, in the Middle Ages, a small Augustinian priory belonging to the Archbishop of Canterbury. In the eighteenth century Sir John Soane rebuilt the house for the Earl of Abercorn. It now has a purely Victorian exterior, though some early features survive. The Prince Regent, with the Tsar of Russia and the King of Prussia, met Louis XVIII here on his way from his exile in England to ascend the throne of France. It was later, in 1848, the home of the Dowager Queen Adelaide. Sir Walter Scott is said to have written or revised Marmion on a visit here.
The manor of Wembley belonged to the Priory of Kilburn, and on the Dissolution was granted to Richard Page. His descendants enjoyed the property for many generations until, on the death of the last known heir, the property became the subject of many claims.
The Benedictine Abbey of Bec Herlewin in Normandy held much property in this country, and one of its most important manors was Ruislip, where there was a cell of the Order. The possessions of all alien priories were seized by Henry V, and Ruislip was granted as part of the endowment of King’s College, Cambridge. Parts of the sixteenth-century house, known as Manor Farm, stand within the still visible moat of the house, possibly built by Ernulf de Hesding, who gave the manor to the Abbey of Bec in 1096. Manor Farm has been acquired by the District Council and one of the larger barns has been converted for use as a library. The Hawtreys held property in this parish, and Ruislip Church contains a number of beautiful memorials to them, dating from the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries.
The Newdigates were the principal landowners in Harefield for many generations, and Queen Elizabeth is said to have stayed at Harefield Place. Milton visited there and witnessed a performance of his “Arcades “, enacted in the grounds by the grandchildren of the Countess of Derby. The house, which was rebuilt in 168o, was demolished in 1814. Alice, Countess of Derby, founded the almshouses in this parish.
Breakspears, about half a mile to the east of Harefield Church, is said to take its name from the family of which Nicholas Breakspear, the only English Pope (Adrian IV), was a member, but this legend is extremely improbable. It has recently been acquired by the County Council.
In Harefield also is the thirteenth-century, two-storeyed, Moor Hall Chapel, which, though in poor condition, is one of the few surviving monastic buildings in the County, having originally been a preceptory of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem.
The manor of Colham in the parish of Hillingdon belonged for many generations to the family of the Earls of Derby, but the village is chiefly famous for the fact that Charles I stayed at the “Red Lion” there on his escape from Oxford.
Cedar House, in East Hillingdon, a Tudor house partly remodelled in the early eighteenth century, has a Tudor south front and notable panelling.
One of the most famous of the lesser country houses to be found anywhere in England is Swakeleys in Ickenham. The property originally belonged to Robert de Swalclyve, after whom it was named. It passed to the Bourchier family and subsequently to the Marquess of Exeter, who conveyed it in 1532 to Ralph Pexall. In the seventeenth century it came into the hands of Sir Edmond Wright, Lord Mayor of London, who between 1629 and 1638 built the present house. It passed a few years later to Sir Robert Vyner, another Lord Mayor and a friend of Pepys, who described Swakeleys in his Diary. Except for some minor alterations in the eighteenth century, the house is as fine a specimen of unspoilt seventeenth-century domestic architecture as it is possible to find.
The Treaty House at Uxbridge, now the Crown Hotel, lies on the southwest side of the High Street and was used in 1645 by the Commissioners of the King and of Parliament in their attempts to arrive at some treaty by which further hostilities could be abandoned. These discussions proved abortive, and the Civil War continued to take its drastic course. Some original features remain, including two rooms with contemporary fireplaces, but the panelling was sold and removed to America some years ago.
Dawley House or Court in Harlington was purchased by Lord Bolingbroke, the Tory statesman, in 1727, after his retirement. He diverted himself here with the society of literary friends and agricultural hobbies.
He liked to give the impression that he was a great patron of farming, and Pope wrote to Swift that Bolingbroke paid an artist £200 to paint pictures of farm implements along the walls of his hall. The house was pulled down at the end of the eighteenth century, but Dawley Manor House Farm and barns still stand. A large factory now occupies the site of Dawley Court, and a part of the old wall has been incorporated in its present boundary.
The remaining buildings of the manor house of Cranford St. John, later known as Cranford House, were pulled down shortly after the second world war; the old buildings had been considerably altered by Admiral the Earl of Berkeley in 1722.
The Gatehouse and wall at West Drayton are all that remain of the early sixteenth-century Manor which belonged to William Paget, a famous ambassador and courtier of Henry VIII and of Edward VI. The manor house itself was demolished in 1750.
Traces of ancient work are to be seen at Harmondsworth, notably the medieval tithe-barn, the seventh largest in England, which ranks as one of the chief ancient monuments of Middlesex. There was here an alien priory, a cell of the Benedictine Abbey of the Holy Trinity of Rouen. Much property in this parish was given by William of Wykeham for the endowment of Winchester College, though in 1544 it was exchanged with the Crown for other estates.
Staines is historically notable as the site of one of the earliest bridges built in this County, though there are no traces of it now to be found.
The oldest monument in Staines is of the seventeenth-century” London Stone “, marking the site of another stone erected as long ago as 1285 at the western limit of the City of London’s jurisdiction over the Thames. It also marks the county boundary of Middlesex and Buckinghamshire and the ancient division between the upper and lower Thames. In 1857, the Thames Conservancy Board assumed the jurisdiction previously held by the City of London until, in 1909, the tidal part of the river (up to Teddington) was vested in the Port of London Authority.
The amazing determination of Henry VIII to satisfy his desires is exemplified by a story told in regard to the old Manor House at Stanwell. For many generations the family of Windsor had possessed this property, until one day a messenger called on Andrews, 1st Lord Windsor, announcing that the King would dine with him that night. At dinner Henry expressed his delight with the house and his resolution to possess it. In spite of the protestations of Lord Windsor, a deed of surrender was produced which he was compelled to sign, and he was ordered to leave immediately. Lord Windsor had laid in his Christmas store, but such was his courtesy that he refused to take it away and it was left for the King’s household to enjoy.
The manor was subsequently granted by James I to Thomas, Baron Knyvett, who as a justice of the peace for Westminster discovered the Gunpowder Plot. By the terms of his will, he founded and endowed Stanwell Free School in 1624. It is one of the oldest schools in the County and the building has scarcely been altered since the seventeenth century.
At Feltham, the Manor House, once occupied by Lord Cottington, Chancellor of the Exchequer from 1629 to 1642, and an ardent Royalist, shows traces of its seventeenth-century rebuilding after the fire of 1634.
Hanworth Manor was used as a hunting lodge by Henry VIII and granted first to Anne Boleyn in 1532 and subsequently to his last and surviving queen, Catherine Parr, who lived here with her fourth husband, Lord Seymour of Sudeley. Lady Jane Grey stayed here during this time and Elizabeth spent much of her early youth here in the charge of her stepmother. After Catherine’s death, Lord Seymour was alleged to have forced his attentions on the young Princess with a view to marriage, behaviour that is said to have influenced Elizabeth to remain a spinster. The house was destroyed by fire in 1797.
One has only to turn the pages of the Royal Commission’s Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Middlesex to appreciate that the County is as rich as, if not richer than most other counties in buildings of beauty and of historic importance.
Note : The following extracts have been taken from the Report and Inventory prepared by the Royal Commission on Historical Monuments, published by His Majesty’s Stationery Office in 1937. Cases where substantial war damage subsequently occurred are marked *.
PRINCIPAL HISTORIC BUILDINGS AND MONUMENTS
ST. MARY’S CHURCH, rebuilt 1865, contains many earlier fittings, including 17th-century highly enriched plate.
BERRYMEAD PRIORY (now part of the premises of H. W. Nevill & Sons Ltd.), possible 16th-century origin, but extensively altered.
GEORGE AND DRAGON HOTEL, probably two early 17th-century houses, much altered.
THE GRANGE, East Acton.
ST. MATTHEW’S CHURCH, rebuilt 1858, on a new site; earlier fittings include 16th-century brass and two 17th-century bells.
CLOCKHOUSE FARM, probably 17th century, much altered; two original windows with solid frames and mullions.
FORD FARM, possibly 17th century, partly burnt 1716, since altered.
BEDFONT, EAST (Feltham)
ST. MARY’S CHURCH, 12th-century chancel and nave, 16th-century rood-stair projection, original chancel arch and doorway, and noteworthy mediaeval wall-paintings.
PATES MANOR FARM, house and barn—house probably 16th century, with various additions on E. Side; reset panels with Christ’s Hospital (former owners) arms in porch; weather-boarded barn.
BENNETTS FARM, probably early 18th century. Original staircase.
FAWNS, 17th-century house, much altered.
GREEN MAN INN, 17th century, largely rebuilt in brick.
ST. LAWRENCE’S CHURCH, rebuilt 1764, has 15th-century W. Tower and bell cast by William Culverden, C. 1510; font and brass c. 1500.
BOSTON HOUSE, rebuilt 1622-3, and further works carried out in 1671, probably including N. wing and E. outbuildings; noteworthy ceilings, staircase, fireplace, i 7th-century hall-screen.
BEAUFORT HOUSE and CHATHAM HOUSE,
The Butts; originally one late 17th- or early 18th-century house. Original medallioned eaves-cornice, panelling, etc.
LINDEN HOUSE and COBDEN HOUSE, The Butts; the same period, but partly re-fronted.
Various other houses of similar period in The Butts and High Street.
OLD ENGLAND, site on the Thames bank bordering Isleworth parish, has yielded finds dating from Bronze Age downwards, and excavations in 1928 indicated a Hallstatt settlement of some size.
FERRY HOUSE, Ferry Lane, late 17th or early 18th century; interior modernized.
GROVE HOUSE (now N., Middle and S. Grove) same period, but much altered.
Various other houses of similar period.
ST. NICHOLAS’ CHURCH, W. Tower early 15th century, remainder rebuilt 1882; 13th-century Purbeck marble slab coffin-lid in churchyard; Hogarth’s tomb and various interesting 17th-century monuments, etc.
CHISWICK HOUSE, 16th century; existing Grosvenor wing added c. 1700; 1730-6 Palladian villa added by Lord Burlington; original house demolished, 1788; gateway ascribed to Inigo Jones.
BOSTON HOUSE, Chiswick Square, late 17th century, large early 18th-century S.W. addition. Early 18th-century staircase.
4, 5 AND 6, CHISWICK SQUARE, 17th-century houses. Original panelling, etc.
LATIMER HOUSE and HOLLY HOUSE, Church St., late 17th-century house; refronted, etc., 18th century.
HOUSE, F. SIDE OF CHURCH STREET, now three tenements, much altered and added to, probably 16th-century plastered timber-framing house.
BURLINGTON CORNER, late 17th- to 18thcentury weather-boarded, timber-framed house, containing reset early 16th-century linenfold panelling; later additions.
HOGARTH HOUSE, 17th century, with early 18th-century addition on S. recently replaced by a small picture gallery; some original fire-places. Now opened as a Hogarth Museum.
DUKE OF DEVONSHIRE’S ALMSHOUSES, Sutton Lane, c. 1700; and many other 17th-century houses.
WOODROFFE HOUSE, late 17th to 18th century.
BEDFORD HOUSE and EYNSHAM HOUSE, originally one 18th-century building with modern additions. Original panelling, etc.
THAMES VIEW and LINGARD HOUSE, originally one 18th-century house, much altered.
RED LION HOUSE, C. 1700, modern attic- storey and refaced S.E. front; original fireplace and staircase.
WALPOLE HOUSE, probably dates mainly from late 16th century, but little more than main chimney-stack left; S.E. front and addition on N.W. side early 18th century, 17th- and 18th-century panelling, fireplace and staircase.
STRAWBERRY HOUSE and MORTON HOUSE, c. 1700, refronted c. 1730. Original panelling in Morton House.
SWAN HOUSE and CEDAR HOUSE, originally one late 17th-century house largely refaced 18th century. Original staircases.
17th-century houses, many extensively altered, including BULL’S HEAD INN, CITY BARGE INN, ZOFFANY HOUSE.
ST. LAURENCE’S CHURCH, 12th-century nave; chancel rebuilt and probably widened 13th century; later and modern restorations and additions; palimpsest brasses; fragments of 15th-century tracery and early 16th-century poppy-heads’ in modern screen; remains of moulded stone bowl 12th or 13th century in churchyard.
MANOR FARM, built c. 1600, later additions; 17th-century barns.
THE OLD COTTAGE, early 16th century. BARNACRE, MAYGOOD FARM, CROWN INN,
THE OLD HOUSE, all 17th century subject to certain later alterations.
CRANFORD (Harlington and Isleworth)
ST. DUNSTAN’S CHURCH, 15th century, with later additions; bell probably cast by William Burford c. 1380; some remarkable monuments, including one to Sir R. Aston, 1612 ; one to Lady Berkeley, 1635 (said to have been made in Rome), and palimpsest brass.
HOMESTEAD MOAT, site of Manor house of Cranford le Mote.
CRANFORD HOUSE, early 17th-century stables. Remainder of house demolished 1945-
THE RECTORY, partly 17th century; brick-faced and added to 18th century; probably 17th-century barn.
MOATED MOUND, roughly circular, 8o yds., N.N.E. of bridge, mostly filled in.
ST. MARTIN’S CHURCH, signs of 13th-century origin, but largely rebuilt i5th century, and later restored; elaborately carved 15th-century font; inscribed chalice and paten, 1507.
THE GATEHOUSE of former Manor House, early 16th century, but with alterations.
THE VICARAGE, N.E. wing probably 17th century, with 18th-century additions and rebuilding.
THE COPSE, 16th century, refaced and added to in 18th century.
THE OLD HOUSE, late 17th to 18th century.
AVENUE HOUSE, 16th-century E. wing, remainder 18th century.
SOUTHLANDS, early 18th century, with barn probably 17th century.
OLD MEADOWS, probably 16th century. THE FRAYS, possibly 15th century, but refaced.
ST. MARY’S CHURCH, rebuilt 1866; contains old fittings; 15th-century brass; 17th-century monuments and plate.
ROCHESTER HOUSE said to have been built 1712; subsequent S.W. addition.
ST. MARGARET’S CHURCH, rebuilt 1764 and later reconstructed; W. tower probably 15th century; Elizabethan cup, 1562.
BROCKLEY HILL, records and traces of Roman settlement.
NICOLL’S FARM, late 17th to 18th century, but refronted.
BURY FARM, probably early 17th century, later added to and altered.
ALL SAINTS’ CHURCH, chiefly rebuilt 15th century on site of 12th-century predecessor, with subsequent additions; traces of Norman masonry; early 16th-century tombs. Very interesting brasses.
SALISBURY HOUSE, late 16th to 17th century with modern additions; 17th-century overmantels, etc.
VICARAGE COTTAGE, LAMB’S COTTAGE and other 17th-century houses, several refaced or altered.
MOATS at Weir Hall and Marsh Side have now been filled in. Excavations have revealed many Roman remains.
ST. ANDREW’S CHURCH, chance! rebuilt 13th century, 14th-century arcades;
ENFIELD CHURCH, RAYNTON MONUMENT, 1646 altar-tomb of Joyce, Lady Tiptoft, 1446, with a brass and later canopy; monument to Sir Nicholas Raynton, Sheriff and Lord Mayor of London, 1646; oval wall-tablet by Nicholas Stone, 1617, etc.
HOMESTEAD MOATS: (1) on Enfield Golf Course, about 1 mile S.S.W. of church; (2) CAMLET MOAT, about 2- miles W.N.W. of church; (3) DURANTS, 1¾ miles E. of church (practically all filled in); PLANTATION FARM, 2¾ miles N.E. of church, S. arm filled in.
HOUSE on E. side of Gentleman’s Row, practically rebuilt, but portions of early 16th-century work discovered and sent to British Museum; contains fittings from old Enfield Palace, including 16th-century fireplace.
GRAMMAR SCHOOL, mid 16th century, refitted 18th century and later.
FORTY HALL, built 1629-32 for Sir N. Raynton, design ascribed to Inigo Jones; repaired and modernized, 18th century; elaborate 17th-century ceiling and hail-screen. Acquired by Enfield Urban District Council in 1951.
DOWER HOUSE, 17th century, enlarged and altered 18th century.
WORCESTER LODGE and THE HERMITAGE, early 18th century.
ROSE AND CROWN INN, probably same period, but much altered.
*KING JAMES AND THE TINKER INN, 17th century, refitted and altered 18th century. Damaged by enemy action and partly rebuilt.
GLASGOW STUD FARM, early 17th century; noteworthy staircase.
VICARAGE (largely modern), E. and W. wings possibly 16th century.
CLARENDON COTTAGE, GENTLEMAN’S ROW, altered and remodelled in 18th century, retains 17th-century chimney-stack.
OLD PARK FARM, 17th century, some original mullioned and transomed windows, otherwise much altered.
EARTHWORK AT OLD PARK, 1,250 yds. S.W. of church; N. and W. sides clear, S. side much levelled, E. almost obliterated.
ST. DUNSTAN’S CHURCH, rebuilt 1802, enlarged 1855-6; some earlier fittings.
MANOR HOUSE, reputed rebuilt after fire
1634. BARN probably 16th to 17th century.
Also 17th-century cottages.
*ST. MARY’S CHURCH, rebuilt 15th century, early 13th-century font.
ST. PAUL’S CHURCH (modern), late 14th-century bell from Hatford, Berkshire.
HOMESTEAD MOATS: (1) Bishop’s Lodge on Highgate Golf Course, and (2) at Manor House, both fragmentary.
SPANIARDS INN, 17th century, extensively altered, added to and refaced.
ST. JAMES’S CHURCH, retains 12th-century doorway, otherwise 19th century.
CAMPE ALMSHOUSES, erected 1612, restored and altered 19th century; five old stone panels on front. (Further restored in 1946, only a small part being now used for almswomen.
HOLY CROSS CHURCH, restored and altered 15th or early 16th century; two mediaeval bells—(1) 14th century, uninscribed, (2) cast by William Culverden about 1510; 1450 brass, half-figure of priest; 17th-century baluster font with contemporary cover and monument to Simon Coston; best heraldic glass in County—arms of Eton and King’s College.
THE GRANGE, probably early 17th-century timber framing, recased in brick 18th century; some original panelling.
ST. MARY’S CHURCH, rebuilt 1829-31, contains many earlier fittings.
HAMPTON COURT PALACE, commenced in 1514, many 16th-century additions and alterations, 17th-Century works by Wren.
ROYAL MEWS, Hampton Court Road; the Tudor Stables of the Palace, with large Elizabethan barn.
FARADAY HOUSE, 18th century, extensively altered. 16th—17th century outbuilding on S.E.
COURT COTTAGE, C. 1700, parapet later and back refaced.
THE OLD COURT HOUSE, early 18th century, leased to Wren.
HOUSE (two tenements) 25 yds. S. of Faraday House, possibly 16th century.
OLD MALT OR BREW HOUSE, C. 1700.
ST. ALBANS, possibly late 17th century, extensively altered.
THE OLD GRANGE, mid 17th century, much altered.
FEATHERS COTTAGE, probably 16th to 17th century; and many other 17th- and 18th-century houses.
HAMPTON WICK (Twickenham)
WOLSEY’S COTTAGE, late 16th century; and other 17th- and 18th-century houses. A plaque commemorates the fight of Timothy Bennett, local shoemaker, to establish right of way through Bushy Park.
ST. GEORGE’S CHURCH, rebuilt 1812, has some 15th-century glass and various fittings; panel of arms of James I,
HANWORTH PARK: the manor house, originally belonging to Henry VIII, burned 1797; remains of fireplaces, walls and moat (S. and S.W. of church).
HANWORTH HOUSE, partly c. 1600, much altered.
ST. MARY’S CHURCH, 13th-century window, 14th-century S. aisle; foreign communion rails with richly carved panels; late medieval font; extensive series of monuments mostly to members of the Newdigate family, including fine canopied and painted monument to Alice, Countess of Derby, 1636; Elizabethan Communion cup, 1561.
CHAPEL OF KNIGHTS OF ST. JOHN, AT MOOR
HALL FARM, early 13th century; later brick repairs.
BRACKENBURY FARM: house 16th- to 17th-century work; 16th-century barn; HOMESTEAD MOAT, 350 yds. S.E. of, and formerly surrounding house, complete on three sides.
ALMHOUSES, built 1600, founded by the Countess of Derby.
HAREFIELD PLACE, remains of 16th-century brick garden walls.
BREAKSPEARS: house possibly 16th century, practically entirely rebuilt 17th century; early 17th-century dovecot.
WHITE HORSE INN, late 16th century and modern additions.
MANOR COURT, probably 16th century-much altered.
KING’S ARMS INN, 15th century, largely rebuilt in 17th century, and later additions.
WHITEHEATH FARM, 17th-century house and barn: house walls refaced, later additions.
MEADOW COTTAGE, 16th century with 17th-century alterations and additions.
CRIPPS FARM COTTAGE, house and barn; 16th century, with later additions to barn.
JACK’S COTTAGE, 17th-Century chimney-stack surrounded by rebuilt timbers from earlier building and later brickwork.
*BOURNE FARM and barns, 17th century.
HIGHWAY FARM, rebuilt, retaining 17th-century chimney-stack.
NEW YEARS GREEN FARM, 17th century, largely rebuilt.
CROWS NEST FARM, late 16th or early 17th century, later additions and front refaced.
SWAKELEY FARM, house and barns; house c. 1709, has later additions.
CHURCH OF ST. PETER AND ST. PAUL, 12th-century nave and doorway; chancel built or rebuilt c. 1340; early 16th-century timber porch; 15th- and 16th-century brasses; tomb recesses probably 14th century; 16th-century tablet memorials; palimpsest brasses. W. Tower late 16th century.
CHURCH FARM, 16th- or 17th-Century barn.
DAWLEY MANOR FARM, 16th century (E. Wing extended 17th century), with original window with four mullion-shaped diamonds; timber-framed barns, probably late 16th century. MOAT on opposite side of road now filled in.
DOWER HOUSE, chiefly i6th century. Partly timber-framed; moulded ceiling beam, four doors of moulded battens.
ST. MARY’S CHURCH, 12th-century origin with later additions; 12th-century doorway and font (possibly slightly later); fairly extensive remains of late medieval seating; 15th-century hammer-beam roof over N. Chapel.
Unusually fine 14th- or 15th-century BARN and MOAT, remainder of priory of Holy Trinity, Rouen, founded in time of Wm. I. Moat retains W. arm, traces of N. and S. enclosure.
THE GRANGE, 17th century.
HARMONDSWORTH HALL, rebuilt or remodelled 18th century, but incorporates 17th-century chimney-stack.
FIVE BELLS INN, 17th century, much altered.
SUN HOUSE, probably 16th century, extended 18th century.
KING WILLIAM INN, 17th century, much altered.
COLLEGE FARM, 17th century, largely refaced; cross wing at E. end.
WHITE HORSE INN, 17th century, much altered and refronted.
WEEKLY HOUSE and barns, 17th century.
Also various 17th-century houses and cottages. EARTHWORK nearly 2 miles E. of Church.
ST. MARY’S, a cruciform church, the most extensive example of 13th-century work in the County; 12th-century doorway, etc., in Tower; late 14th- and 15th-century brasses and palimpsest brasses; good 15th- or 16th-century door; 12th-century font with circular enriched bowl; Elizabethan cup, 1598; a handsome pulpit given in 1708.
HARROW SCHOOL, founded 1571-2, first opened 1611; original building still survives with S. front refaced; original windows on ground floor, transomed and with moulded oak frames; Fourth Form Room has moulded and gilded panelling of c. 1700; early 17th-century fireplace.
THE OLD HOUSE, S.E. side of High St., formerly the “Queen’s Head “, apparently largely rebuilt in 17th or early 18th century. Contains chamfered beams, possibly part of an earlier structure; top storey is modern.
GRIMS DYKE, earthworks of major importance.
PRIORY HOUSE, rebuilt but incorporates base of 16th-century chimney-stack; 17th-century garden wall.
SEVEN BELLS INN and FARM COTTAGE, 17th century.
ST. MARY’S CHURCH, boarded and panelled roof; timber porch, originally 16th century, reconstructed; timber lych-gate, probably early 16th century; 12th- or 13th-century font; 13th- and 15th-century wall paintings; 13th-century piscina; 14th- and 15th-century brasses; late 16th-century altar tomb; monument to Sir E. Fenner, 1611-12.
HOMESTEAD MOAT, at site of Old Manor House, 750 yds. W. of Church, practically filled in.
MANOR HOUSE, N.E. part early 16th century, S.E. slightly later, whole refaced in brick 17th or 18th century with modern additions; a little early 17th-century and some early 18th-century panelling; original roof to W. part of old block.
ST. MARY’S CHURCH, 13th-century chancel work; later Renaissance monument to John Wolstenholme, 1669; tablet memorials of note; very boldly carved heraldic slab of touch to Sir John Whichcote, 1677; remains of 13th-century decorative painting and 16th-or 17th-century black-letter texts; painting of royal arms (Stuart); rich, elaborate 12th-century font.
17th-century WELL in the Grove, N.W. of Highwood Hill.
COPT HALL, rebuilt 1624 and extensively altered.
DANIEL’S ALMSHOUSES, Church End, 1729.
FRITH MANOR, rebuilt 18th century, but with 16th-century stone fireplace; linenfold panelling from elsewhere.
BITTACY HOUSE (modern), contains woodcarving of arms of James I.
NICOLL ALMSHOUSES, built 1696, extensively repaired 19th century.
ROSEBANK, built 1678, altered 1719. RISING SUN INN, 17th century, extensively altered.
CHURCH END FARM, 17th century.
Also other houses of same period.
ST. LEONARD HESTON CHURCH, has timber lychgate; good 15th- or 16th-century door; interesting brasses.
OSTERLEY PARK, almost completely remodelled from Sir T. Gresham’s house Of 1570; Elizabethan stables originally built on quadrangular plan, 1570-80, though altered; house reconstructed by Robert Adam, 1761, now open to the public.
OLD COTE, probably early 16th-century house retains part early 16th-century roof.
ST. LAURENCE COTTAGES, 17th century.
ST. JOHN THE BAPTIST’S CHURCH, 13th century chancel arch; 15th-century brass of John, Lord Strange, under a double canopy; 16th-century brasses; imposing monument to Sir Edward Carr, 1636-7; tower staircase with early 17th-century pilaster balusters.
CEDAR HOUSE, C. 1580, partly remodelled in early 18th century and with modern wing.
ENCLOSURE WALLS, 17th century, E. side of Harlington Road and Lees Road.
GARDEN WALL on W. side of Hubbards Farm; 16th-century brickwork.
KIMBOLTON HOUSE, 16th century, S. block (earliest) refaced in brick; HOUSE at Gould’s Green, late 17th to 18th century.
HOUSE, early 16th century, 70 yds. W.S.W. of church.
THE COTTAGE, south of house, mid-16th century.
EARTHWORK, near church, and partly enclosing Cony Green.
Also various 17th-century houses at West Hillingdon.
ST. MARY’S CHURCH was demolished 1927 and the W. tower, built c. 1500, has modern top.
CHAPEL of Cholmley’s School, rebuilt 19th century, contains 17th- and 18th-century floor-slabs in crypt.
*CRONELL HOUSE, good example late 17th century; apparently built c. 1630, additions 17th and 18th century; in 1865 fire destroyed upper part; highly remarkable carved oak staircase, and good doors, fireplace and ceilings.
LYNDALE HOUSE, largely rebuilt c. 1730, has late 17th-century ceiling and panelled door.
128-130 HIGHGATE HILL. House, built late in 17th century, partly refitted 18th century.
ST. GILES’S CHURCH, partly late 14th century, has medieval bell cast by T. Bullisdon; small effigy of unusual character of the infant R. Clayton, 1665.
SWAKELEYS, built by Sir Edmund Wright, 1629-38, largely unaltered with contemporary fittings; 17th-century STABLES, much altered, and DOVECOTE late 16th- and early 17th-century panellings, well-known 17th- to 18th century paintings; 17th-century ceilings and hail screen.
MANOR FARM, early 16th century with 17th-century staircase and later additions. Moat formerly surrounding house now large outer enclosure and moat on N. side.
COTTAGE, 6o yds. E. of church, late 15th or early 16th century, with later additions on E. and N.
COACH AND HORSES INN, 17th century, much altered, but original window.
IVYHOUSE FARM, 16th-century barn.
ALL SAINTS’ CHURCH, has late 15th-century W. Tower; nave rebuilt 1706-7 and gutted by fire in 1943; brass with tiny figure of Margaret Dely, Sister of Syon, 1561; and other 15th- and 16th-century brasses; 17th- and 18th-century monuments.
HOMESTEAD MOATS: (i) S.W. of WYKE FARM, (2) 350 yds. N.E. of (I), oval and cut through by railway, (3) on N. side of road 1 mile W.S.W. of church, almost entirely filled in.
SYON HOUSE, original building 16th century; completely remodelled in 18th and early 19th centuries, principal first-floor rooms by Robert Adam, 1760-5; fine early 16th-century carved panels; remains of 15th-century under-croft; early 17th-century lodges to W. of house; 16th-century stable, much altered and rebuilt. The house incorporates the undercroft of nunnery of time of Henry V and is open to the public on certain days during summer months, as also are the extensive grounds.
INGRAM ALMSHOUSES, 1664.
HOLME COURT; ROSE COTTAGES, WORTON ROAD, and many other houses of same period.
ST. ANDREW’S CHURCH, possibly dates from before the Conquest; contains earliest medieval bell in County, probably mid 14th century, cast by Peter de Weston.
BLACKBIRD FARM, probably 17th century.
ALL SAINTS’ CHURCH, 12th-Century nave-arcades; Purbeck marble slab altar with consecration crosses.
CHURCH FARM, late 17th century. EARTHWORK about 850 yds. W. of White House, visible from air only
CHURCH OF ST. MARY MAGDALENE, S. arcade c. 1200, additions c. 1280; N. Tower and clerestory early 16th century, etc.; church of architectural interest, with noteworthy communion rails, small chest, much-restored chancel screen, 15th-century traceried stall-backs said to come from Winchester; fairly extensive remains late medieval seating.
OLD MANOR HOUSE, partly 15th century, partly 16th century and later.
RECTORY, C. 1700.
ST. MARY’S CHURCH, nave rebuilt C.
1300; brass—Henry Rowdell, 1452—and palimpsest brasses.
HOMESTEAD MOAT, N.E. of church.
*DOWN BARNS, MOAT on W. side, house rebuilt late 17th or early 18th century; earlier massive chimney-stack on W.
ILIOTS GREEN, late 17th- or early 18th-century house.
MOAT FARM, house and barn, same period.
ST. MARY’S CHURCH, nave probably 12th century; chancel probably added or rebuilt in 13th century; S. porch probably 15th century, but much altered; 15th-century font; 15th- to 16th-century glass; extensive restoration in 1824; 16th-century tombs and glass are noteworthy.
SOUTHALL MANOR HOUSE, 1587, with later additional wing and 18th-century extension; important example of timber-framed work with carved details of interest in hail; one of earliest over-mantels in County; 16th- to 17th-century panellings.
PARISH CHURCH, chancel and nave may be late 13th Century, but earliest surviving detail 15th century; Millet brass, C. 1oo; late 15th-century font, with cover dated 1665.
HOMESTEAD MOAT, nearly 1 mile N.N.E. of church.
RECTORY, apparently partly 15th century, with 17th- and 18th-century additions.
ST. JOHN THE BAPTIST’S CHURCH, early
14th-century chancel, nave, transepts and aisles; consecrated 1321; 15th to
16th century and later additions.
HEADSTONE MANOR, the chapel block of archbishops’ manor of Harrow; 14th- to 15th-century origin, added to or rebuilt 16th century and later; the original roof; etc.; BARN, C. 1600; MOAT, surrounding house.
EAST END FARM, late 16th century. TUDOR COTTAGE, late 16th century, later added to.
CHURCH FARM, HOUSE and BARNS, 17th century, extended 18th century. QUEEN’S HEAD INN, 17th century, later additions.
HOUSE 90 yds. W.S.W. of the inn, probably early 16th century; HOUSE 210 yds. W. of church, 16th century.
WAXWELL FARM, 17th century;’ one original window, etc.
PINNER PARK, site of former deer park. GRIMS DYKE, only County earthwork of major importance.
ST. MARTIN’S CHURCH, 13th-century nave and S. arcade; 15th-century and later additions; some interesting brasses; two large iron-bound chests probably 16th century; good 15th- or 16th-century door; interesting monuments and tablet memorials; traces of wall-painting of St. Christopher and of extensive wall-painted decoration of figures including St. Michael and the Virgin; Elizabethen cup dated 1595; 17th-century pulpit; remains of late mediaeval seating.
HOMESTEAD MOATS: (1) overmile N.W. of church, (2) 1 mile N.E. of church and 150 yards W. of Eastcote Grange —fragmentary.
MANOR FARM, house probably early 16th century with later additions; the BARN is c. 1600; a second barn was restored and is in use as a County library; the EARTHWORKS consist of motte and bailey castle (probably 11th century), a precinct, large enclosure and mound.
ALMSHOUSES, 17th century.
HOUSE, 1 AND 3 HIGH STREET, built C. 1500,
extended N. 16th century and later.
OLD SWAN INN, has S. range of c. 1500; N. block adjoining c. 1600, and later addition.
THE OLD HOUSE, BURY STREET, 17th century, containing early 16th-century linenfold and later panelling.
MILL HOUSE, 17th century, largely modernized.
HILL FARM, FIELDEND FARM (house and barn); SHERLEY’S FARM; LITTLE MANOR FARM and WOODMAN’S FARM, all 17th century.
PLOUGH INN, has block on S. side of c. 1600 and remains of mediaeval building with later additions.
YOUNGWOOD FARM, 17th century with later additions.
DUCKSHILL FARM, 17th-century house (refaced in brick) and BARNS.
NORTHWOOD GRANGE, has 15th-century block at W. end, some c. 1600 and modern additions.
GATESHILL FARM, CUCKOOHILL FARM, MISTLETOE FARM, HORNEND, CHENEY FARM: all originally 17th century.
ST. CATHERINE’S FARM, late 16th-century house and barn.
RAMIN, 17th century, with 16th-century barn.
EASTCOTE GRANGE, 16th century, with modern addition and 17th-century cottage.
EASTCOTE HOUSE, 16th to 17th century, later refaced and added to, and 17th-century stables.
EASTCOTE COTTAGE, late 16th century, much altered.
THE BARNS (house, 230 yds. S.E. of cottage) perhaps mediaeval origin, much altered and added to.
PARK FARM AND SIGERS, 17th century.
FIELDEND LODGE, includes part 16th-century house.
FIELDEND FARM, 17th century, with modern additions and partly refaced; early 16th-century barn.
OLD BARN HOUSE, late mediaeval, much altered.
FORE STREET FARM, 17th-century house (with later N. extension) and barn.
OLD CHENEY COTTAGE, IVY FARM (perhaps incorporating some medieval work); CHERRY COTTAGE and HAYDEN HALL FARM: all 17th century.
ST. NICHOLAS’ CHURCH, rebuilt as a whole 1614, embodying 12th- or 13th-century work; earlier building reputed damaged or destroyed by floods; modern restorations and vestries.
RECTORY, late 15th to 16th century, remodelled and added to; 18th-century front.
IVY COTTAGE, 16th century, altered and partly refaced.
MANOR FARM BARN, late 17th century. WHITE COTTAGE, late 16th century, re-fronted in brick.
CHRIST CHURCH, founded 1615, rebuilt 1862; contains old fittings.
HOMESTEAD MOAT, N. side of Fords Grove and E. of New River; fragmentary.
SOUTH MIMMS (Potter’s Bar)
ST. GILES’S CHURCH, with chancel probably 13th, nave 14th to 15th century, W. Tower 15th century, northern arcade, chapel and aisle 16th century; 13th-or 14th-century chest, some early 16th-century glass (1526), badly decayed; recumbent effigy—Frowyke–period doubtful, semi-Gothic but possibly more Renaissance; curious Renaissance canopy tomb, probably Henry Frowyke, 1527.
MOTTE AND BAILEY CASTLE, earthwork
about 1 mile N.N.E. of church.
MIMMS HALL, probably early 16th-century house later cased in brick and altered on E. and S., fragments of MOAT which apparently surrounded house.
BLANCHE FARM, late 16th- or early 17th-century house; 17th-century staircase; 17th-century COTTAGE. MOAT originally surrounding house; filled on E. and W.
FOLD or OLD FORD FARM, 17th-Century house with later additions; 17th-century but much altered BARNS; MOAT S. of house, largely intact.
KNIGHTSLAND FARM, 16th century; 18th-century brick casing, notable 16th-century wall paintings depicting story of Prodigal Son, and linenfold panellings; 17th-century BARN.
MANOR FARM or WYLLYOTS MANOR, house probably c. 1600, incorporated with W. part, formerly a 16th-century barn.
WHITE HART INN, late 17th or early 18th century, much altered.
BLACK HORSE INN, early 18th century. SPARROW FARM, built c. 1500; 16th-century fireplace.
BRIDGEFOOT FARM and BENTLEY HEATH FARM, 17th century BARNS.
GREEN MAN INN, 17th century, much altered.
ST. MARY’S CHURCH, rebuilt 1828 with later additions; W. tower rebuilt 1631 and ascribed to Inigo Jones.
LONDON STONE, 260 yards W.S.W. of church, probably dates from 17th century.
DUNCROFT HOUSE, 17th century, extensively altered, interesting fittings.
BLUE ANCHOR HOTEL, 17th-century front rebuilt in brick C. 1700; contemporary fittings.
WHITE LION INN, 17th-century, extensive additions; other 17th-century houses.
ST. JOHN’S CHURCH, 1849-50, near sites of medieval and 17th-century predecessors, and contains many fittings from latter; 17th- to 18th-century baluster font and cover; imposing Wolstenholme monument, 1639, by N. Stone, and later monuments.
ST. LAWRENCE’S CHURCH, W. Tower early 16th century; remainder rebuilt 1715; noteworthy early 18th-century painted walls and ceilings, and fittings, including Handel’s organ and the Chandos tomb.
LAKE ALMSHOUSES, founded before 1693.
WHITE HART INN, 17th-century front block, rebuilt 18th century.
CHANDOS ARMS (disused and condemned), probably 16th century with 17th-century additions—traces of royal arms painted on plaster.
BROCKLEY HILL FARM, 17th-century house (with early 17th-century panelling) and barn.
LYMES FARM, 17th-century house and barn.
ST. MARY’S CHURCH, arcades of nave 13th century; 14th-century arcaded chancel and tower; half figure brass of rector, 1408; monument to Lord Knyvett, 1622; 14th-century sedilia forming continuation of wall arcading of chancel.
MOATED ENCLOSURE, 500 yards N. of church.
POYLE MANOR, rebuilt early 18th century; fragmentary MOAT.
SCHOOL-HOUSE founded 1624 and little altered.
THE CROFT, 17th century, much altered.
HAMMONDS FARM, C. 1700.
POYLE FARM, 17th century.
THE HOLLIES, 17th century, extensive later additions.
KING JOHN’S PALACE, late 16th- to 17th-century house, later extended.
STAR AND GARTER INN, 17th-century brick building.
WHITE HART INN, 17th century, largely rebuilt in brick 18th century.
ST. MARY’S CHURCH, rebuilt 1752 and, except tower, in 1856; earlier fittings.
Fragmentary HOMESTEAD MOAT at Kempton Park over 1 mile N.E. of church.
IVY HOUSE, ROSSELL HOUSE, and THREE FISHES INN, late 17th to 18th century, with later additions.
HAWKE HOUSE, apparently 1703.
HARROW INN, Charlton Village, 15th to 16th century, partly refaced in brick.
ST. MARY’S CHURCH, largely rebuilt in 18th and 19th centuries; early 16th-century arch between N. chapel and aisle, and brick-built S. aisle with tiled roof.
Early Georgian houses, and The Elms, Park Road, Bushy Lodge (now part of Nat. Physical Laboratory).
ALL HALLOWS CHURCH, 14th-century tower and rebuilt Old Chancel and arcade naves; S. aisle largely rebuilt about 1500 and S. porch added. Later additions and restoration: early 17th-century Communion table; late 16th-to early 17th-century glass; various monuments.
TOTTENHAM HIGH CROSS, brick and modern stucco, brick probably replaced former wooden cross, c. 1600.
BRUCE CASTLE, house and tower, house now Borough Museum, structure appears to be late 16th century, later altered and added to. TOWER, 16th century, use uncertain.
THE PRIORY (now Vicarage), c. 1620, later refaced and altered; some original panelling, overmantels, ceilings.
ASPLIN FARM, early 17th century, later added to and altered.
DIAL HOUSE, GATEWAY (c. 1700), BROOK HOUSE, and other houses in High Road erected 17th century.
ST. MARY’S CHURCH has restored 15th-century tower; medieval bell (probably by J. Sanders, 16th century); 17th-Century chest; 17th- or 18th century baluster font. Particularly fine brickwork. Architect, John James of Greenwich.
YORK HOUSE (now municipal offices), mainly late 17th century with contemporary fittings, modern side wings and earlier staircase.
CROSS DEEP, C. 1700, with later N. and S. wings.
STRAWBERRY HILL (now St. Mary’s College), part late 17th century, reconstructed and to a great extent recreated by Walpole, mid 18th century. Much 20th-century addition.
GEORGE INN, 37 KING STREET, 17th to 18th century, with some original panelling.
ST. MARY’S CHURCH, W. of Twyford Abbey, reputed rebuilt in 16th century, and pinnacles and W. porch added 18o8; interesting monuments.
ST. MARGARET’S CHURCH has 15th-century hammer-beam roof over S. aisle; monument to Lady Bennet, 1638, and others. Traces of late 14th-century work.
OLD TREATY HOUSE (now Crown Hotel), probably early 16th century, but greater part pulled down and rebuilt in 18th century.
THREE TUNS INN, probably late 15th or early 16th century, with 17th-Century addition at back.
KING’S ARMS HOTEL, probably late 15th century; modern gables and exposed framing (mostly modern); 17th-century mostly outbuilding.
GEORGE HOTEL, C. 1576, refronted and much altered; reconditioned Guildhall or Court-Room on N. side of yard.
RED HOUSE, probably 16th century; front block rebuilt early 18th century.
QUEEN’S HEAD INN, probably late 15th or early 16th century; refaced in brick; also many houses of same period.
HUNDRED ELMS FARM, outbuildings early 16th century, part removed; some original windows; barn 17th century.
SUDBURY COURT and HILLSIDE FARM possibly 17th-century origin, greatly altered and enlarged.
LYON’S FARM, late 17th to 18th century, back refaced (reputed birthplace of founder of Harrow School).
MOOT-SITE OF THE HUNDRED OF GORE, 1000 yards N.E. of Lyon’s Farm, identified by court-roll of 1445 triangular site raised about 3 feet above surrounding level.
ST. MARY’S CHURCH, 12th-century font indicates early foundation; earliest part of existing structure S. arcade of nave, mid 13th century; subsequent additions—noteworthy Communion table; cup dated 1606.
THE GRANGE, Neasden, C. 1700.
*OLD OXGATE FARM, N. wing probably part of large 16th-century house, remainder 17th century.
THE GRANGE, 17th century with 18th-century additions.
PHILPOTS FARM, 17th-century BARNS.
RED COW INN, 17th century; originally timber-framed.
DE BURGH ARMS HOTEL, 17th century, extensively altered; some original mullion and transom windows.