Timeline of Byzantium / Catholic & Apostolic Church ‘Orthodox’
Constantine I acclaimed emperor at York, Northern Britain.
Constantine’s victory at the battle of the Milvian Bridge outside Rome.
First Ecumenical council at Nicaea.
11th May, inauguration of the city of Constantine, Constantinople. This is the new capital of the Roman Empire on the existing site of the ancient Greek city Byzantium: As seen renamed Constantinople and it would become the capital of the Byzantine Empire.
Passing on of Constantine I with a Christian funeral.
Second Ecumenical council at Constantinople.
The Roman Empire divides in half, with the Eastern Roman Empire based in Constantinople and the Western Roman Empire based in Rome/Ravenna.
Constantinople expanded by new walls.
Third Ecumenical council at Ephesus.
Fourth Ecumenical council at Chalcedon.
Zeno emperor in east.
Basiliscus usurps power in the east.
The Western Empire falls with Romulus Augustulus dieing: The Eastern Empire survives and is now labelled as the Byzantine Empire.
Anastasios I emperor in east.
Theoderic rules Ostrogothic kingdom of Italy.
Anastasios recognizes authority, as representative of the Romans, of Clovis, King of the Franks.
Kingdoms of Visigoths in Spain.
Justinian`s reign begins. He reconquers parts of the fallen Western Empire (Africa and Italy, Spain). He codifies the previous Roman laws into one document. Constantinople is the most glorious city in Europe, with 500,000 inhabitants. The Hague Sofia is constructed. Justinian is the last emperor to use the title “Caesar”.
Belisarius reconquers Africa (pacification completed in 540s).
Belisarius begins conquest of Italy (war lasts until 553).
Dedication of the new church of the Holy Wisdom (Hagia Sophia) in Constantinople.
Persian king Chosroes I takes Antioch in Syria.
Bubonic plague spreads throughout Mediterranean.
Avars establish rule over Slavs north of the Black Sea and Danube.
Narses defeats Tolila and last Ostrogothic resistance in Italy.
Reconquest of south-east Spain from Visigoths.
Treaty with Avars and agreement to pay `subsidies`.
`Fifty-year peace` signed with Persia.
Wars with Persia.
Slavs begin to infiltrate across Danube frontier; pressure on frontier fortresses from Avars.
Lombards driven westward from Danube, invade Italy, eventually taking Northern Italy from the Byzantines.
Lombards besiege Ravenna.
Major invasion of Balkans led by Avars.
Avaro-Slav attacks on Thessalonika.
Gradual success in pushing Avars back across Danube.
Maurice overthrown, Photas proclaimed emperor.
War with Persia; situation in Balkans deteriorates.
Heraclius, son of exarch of Africa at Carthage overthrows Photas and becomes emperor. Temporary possession of Mesopotamia. The same system is installed. The Empire`s language changes to Greek. Eventual lost of Syria, Palestine, and Egypt to Muslims.
Central and northern Balkans lost.
Persians occupy Syria, Palastine and Egypt.
Mohammed leaves Mecca for Medina (the Hijra).
Heraclius campaigns in east against Persians.
Siege of Constantinople by combined Avaro-Slavs and Persian forces fails.
Heraclius defeats Persian forces in east.
Peace with Persia.
Arabs begins raids into Palestine.
Arab conquest and occupation of Syria, Palestine, Mesopotamia, Egypt (636-battle of Gabitha/Yarmuk).
Beginning of long-term raids and plundering expeditions against Byzantine Asia Minor.
Sea battle of Phoenix, Byzantines defeated by Muslim fleet.
Constans II leads expedition through Balkans into Italy, takes up residence in Sicily.
constans assassinated; Mizizios proclaimed emperor in Sicily loyal to Constatine IV.
Arab blockade and yearly sieges of Constantinople. First recorded use of `
liquid fire` (Greek fire), to destoy Arab fleet.
Arrival of Bulgars on Danube, defeat of Byzantine forces under Constantine IV.
Sixth Ecumenical Council at Constantinople. The first Six Ecumenical councils are acknowledged as the basis of the Catholic and Aspostolic Church known as Orthodox/right way.
loss of north Africa to Muslims.
Truce between Caliphate and Byzantium (Arab civil war).
Quinisext or Trullan council at Constantinople.
Muslims attack Constantinople, and defeat at Sebastoupolis.
Carthage falls to Arabs final loss of Africa.
Siege of Constantinople; Leo, general of Anatolikon, seizes power and crowned as Leo III.
Regains control of Asia Minor from the Muslims.
Emperor Leo III bans the use of Icons, thus the beginning of the iconoclast controversy.
Leo and Constantine defeat Arab column at Akroinon.
earthquake hits Constantinople.
Artabasdos, Leo`s son-in-law, rebels against Constantine V and seizes Constantinople.
Plague in Constantinople.
Abbasid revolution, removal of Umayyads from power, capital of Caliphate moved to Baghdad.
Constantine launches major expeditions against Bulgars and Arabs.
Byzantines under Constantine VI defeated by Bulgars at Markellai.
Constantine VI deposed by mother Irene; blinded and dies.
Seventh Ecumenical Council of Nicaea.
Charlemagne, King of the Franks, is crowned “Emperor of the Romans” by Pope Leo III in Rome. for the first time in 300 years, there is an emperor of the “East” and an emperor of the “West”.
Irene deposed by chief finance minister Nikephores (Nikephores I).
Nikephores defeated and killed by forces under Khan Krum after initially successful campaign in Bulgaria.
Bulger victories over Byzantine forces.
Leo V convenes synod in Constantinople at the Iconoclast Council in Hague Sophia where iconoclasm is reintroduced as official policy.
Rebellion of Thomas `
Beginning of Arab conquest of Sicily and of Crete.
Arab invasion of Asia Minor; siege and sack of Amorion.
Council held in Constantinople to reaffirm acts of Seventh Ecumenical Council; empress regent Theodores and chief couriers restores images; end of official iconoclasm.
Missionary activity in Bulgaria.
Patriarch Photios, first reign, conversion of the Bulgars and baptism of Khan Boris.
Rus` (Viking) attack on Constantinople. mission to Chazars of St. Cyril.
Major Byzantine victory over Arabs at Poson in Anatolia.
Conversion of Bulgar Khan and leaders. council invoked by Basil I at Constantinople to settle Photian schism: Photios deposed, Ignatios, his predecessor, reinstated. Bulgaria placed under Constantinopolitan ecclesiastical jurisdiction (contrary to papal demands).
Eighth Ecumenical Council in Constantinople.
Final loss of Sicily; Bulgar expansionism under Tsar Symmeon; war with Byzantines.
Bulgars under Symeon overrun Thrace on victory at the River Achelo.
Byzantine conquests and eastward expansionism led by general johnKourkouas.
Bulgars unsuccessfully attack Constantinople.
Prince Igor of Kiev attacks Bithynia and later attacks Constantinople: The Byzantines destroys the Russian fleet.
Recovery of Crete under general Nikephorus Phokas.
Major Byzantine offensive in east, creation of new frontier regions.
Nikephorus II captures Tarsus and Cyprus.
Nikephorus II captures Alleppo and Antioch.
Reign of John I Tzimiskes. Continuation of eastern expansion; defeat of Bulgars with the help of Rus` at Silistra (971).
John I invades Palestine, takes several towns and fortresses, but withdraws.
Basil II becomes Emperor.
Bulgar resistance in western Balkans leads to growth of Bulgarian empire under Tsar Samuel.
Baptism of Vladimar of Kiev and marriage of Anna Porphyrogennetos.
Basil II Crushes Bulgar resistance; Bulgar reincorporated into empire, Danube new frontier in north.
Venetians granted extensive trading rights in the Byzantine Empire, this causes riots in Constantinople towards the Venetians out of resentment of this granting and the reason why the 4th Crusade attacked Constantinople lead by the Dogue of Venice in revenge.
Basil II reconquers Syria from the Muslims.
Basil II reconquers Greece from the Bulgars.
Basil II destroys the Bulgars army, earning the epithet
Bulgaroktonos (“Bulgar Slayer”)
Armenian territories annexed to empire
Harald Hadrada arrives in Constantinople with Varangians
Michael VI takes first steps in debasement of gold currency.
Schism between Constantinople and Rome. When the Roman Catholic Church was formed and declaring all other Christians outside their church were heretics and declared war on them, this included the mother church of what is known as the Orthodox church.
Loss of Southern Italy to the French/Normans the stormtroopers of the new Roman Catholic church, also Seljuks take Bagdad.
Many English-Anglo-Saxons come to Constantinople after their defeat at Senlac ridge, many become part of the Varagian Guard.
Romanos VI defeated at Manzikert to the Seljuk Turks. Permanent loss of most of Asia Minor/ central Anatolia. (Seljuk Turks part of the Turkic peoples, seemed to have originated from Central Asia possibly near the Altay mountain range being pushed out by the Mongols). French/Normans take Bari.
Major Petcheneg advances into Balkans; civil war within empire.
Loss of Syria to Muslims.
Alexios Komnenos rebels and defeats Nikephorus III and crowned emperor
French/Norman invasion of western Balkan provinces.
Byzantines defeat in Thrace.
Seljuk-Petcheneg siege of Constantinople; defeat of Petchenegs.
Alexius appeals to Urban II at Council of Piacenza for help against the Turks. The First Crusade is proclaimed at Council of Clermont.
Crusaders arrive at Constantinople. The Crusaders are successful, but eventually withdraw from co-operation with the Byzantines when the Emperor allows a besieged city to be taken but with no harm to the citizens the French/Normans are infuriated with this action.
First Crusade; Seljuks defeated.
Jerusalem captured; Latin principalities and Kingdom of Jerusalem established in Palestine and Syria.
Alexios Defeats French/Normans under Bohemund.
Commercial privileges granted to Pisa.
Reconquest of southwestern Asia Minor.
Alliance with German empire against French/Normans of southern Italy.
Byzantine confrontation with Crusader principality of Antioch.
Manuel I Komnenos: pro-western poliics become major factor in Byzantine foreign policy.
Treaty of Contanz between Frederick I (Barbarossa) and papacy against Byzantium.
Successful imperial campaign in Italy; commercial and political negotiations with Genoa.
Imperial forces march against Antioch.
Successful imperial political involvement in Italy against German imperial interests; Manuel defeats Hungarians and Serbs in Balkans and reaffirms imperial pre-eminence.
Commercial treaties with Pisa and Genoa.
Byzantina and Venetian hostilities increase.
Manuel plans crusade in east.
Defeat of imperial forces under Manual by Seljuk Sultanate of Rum Kilidj Asian at Myriokephalon, hopes of regaining Asia Minor are lost.
Manuel dies; strong anti-western sentiments in Constantinople.
Massacre of westerners, especially Italian merchants and their dependents in Constantinople.
French/Normans sack Thessalonika; Andronikos Komnenos deposed.
Rebellion in Bulgaria, defeat of local Byzantine troops, establishment of second Bulgarian empire.
Defeat of third crusade at battle of Horns of Hattin; Jerusalem retaken by Saladin.
treaties with Genoa and Pisa.
Fourth Crusade is assembled at Venice, the Dogue of Venice has the Crusade diverted from Egypt to attack Constantinople, here was his time for vengeance.
Fourth Crusade captures Constantinople. The Latin Empire of Constantinople is formed as well as many byzantine successor states. The capture of Constantinople in 1204 was a blow from which the Byzantines never fully recovered, the city was ransacked with its treasures being removed to Western Europe, desecrating the chair of the Patriarch with a whore being allowed to sit on it whilst they had a drunken orgy in the Hague Sophia whilst the Dogue of Venice died here his grave is within the Hague Sophia Church, now a museum.
Latin emperor Baldwin I defeated by Bulgars.
Michael VIII succeeds to throne in empire of Nicaea; Nicaean army defeats combined Latin and Epirot army at battle of Pelagonia; fortress town of Mistra handed over to Byzantines (Nicaea).
The successor state of Nicaea recaptures Constantinople and restores the Byzantine Empire and with it the Orthodox Church ousting the Roman Catholic Church which was imposed upon the people by the Fourth Crusade.
Pope invites Charles of Anjou, brother of Louis IX of France, to support him militarily against Manfred of Sicily and the Hohenstaufen power of Italy.
Manfred of Sicily defeated at battle of Benevento by Charles of Anjou; Angevin plans, supported by papacy, evolve to invade and conquer the Byzantine empire.
Gregory X summons second council of Lyons; representatives of Byzantine Church present; union of the Churches agreed, under threat of papally-approved invasion led by Charles of Anjou; union not accepted in the Byzantine empire.
Ottomans take nearly all remaining Byzantine possessions in Asia Minor (Ephesus 1328, Brusa 1316).
`Sicilian vespers`; death of Charles of Anjou and end of his plans to invade Byzantium.
Andronikos II hires Catalan company as mercenary troop.
Civil war between Andronikos II and Andronikos III.
Turks take Nicaea.
Stefan Dushan Kral (King) of Serbia.
Turks take Nicomedia.
Serbian empire under Stefan Dushan at height of power
Civil war between John V (supported by Serbs( and John VI Kantakouzenos (with Turkish help).
Stefan Dushan crowned emperor of Serbs and Greeks.
Black death reaches Constantinople.
Civil war between john VI and John V (backed by Genoa); Ottomans employed as allies establish themselves in Gallipoli and Thrace.
John VI abdicates and enters a monastery; John V proposes union of Churches to Pope.
Ottomans take Adrianople, which becomes their capital.
John V visits Hungary seeking support against Ottoman threat.
Ottomans defeat Serbs in battle.
John V forced to submit to Ottoman Sultan Murat I; John`s son Andronikos IV rebels, but is defeated.
Civil war in Byzantium: Andronikos IV rebels against John V, who is supported by his younger son Manuel.
John V restored with Turkish and Venetian support.
Bulgarians defeated by Ottomans,
Battle of Kosovo: Serbs forced to withdraw by Ottomans, Serb empire ends; accession of Bayezit I.
Turks capture Thessaly; battle of Trnovo, Bulgarian empire destroyed.
Sigismund of Hungary organizes crusade against Ottoman threat, but is utterly defeated at Nicopolis.
Bayezit I besieges Constantinople, but army withdrawn when Turks defeated by Timur at battle of Ankara (1402).
Manuel II tours Europe to elicit military and financial support; in December 1400 he stayed as a guest of Henry IV in London.
Murat II lays siege to Constantinople.
Governor of Thessalonika ( a brother of John VIII) hands the city over to the Venetians.
Thessalonika retaken by Ottomans; populace and Venetian garrison massacred.
Council of Ferrara moves to Florence; union of Churches formally agreed by emperor John VIII, present at council.
Hungarians and western crusaders, led by Vladislav of Hungary and Poland, defeated at battle of Varna; Vladislav killed in battle.
John VIII dies; his brother Constantine, Despot of the Morea, succeeds as Constantine XI, with coronation at Mistra in 1449.
Mehmet II becomes Sultan.
Union of Churches proclaimed at Constantinople, this would later be rejected by the people of the Orthodox Church, it was the Roman Catholic Church which broke from the church not the other way round so it is for them to repent. and come back into the fold.
Mehmet II lays siege to Constantinople; 29 May, Janissaries break through defences and permit main Ottoman army to enter city; Constantine XI, the last emperor, died in the fighting, and his body was never identified. The end of the Byzantine Empire.
Mistra falls to the Turks.
Trebizond falls to the Turks.