The Frisians, their tribes & allies
The ancient Frisians are but poorly represented by their descendants on the coast of the North Sea at the present time. The greater part of Holland was at one time occupied by them, as the northern part still is. Their coast has undergone greater changes within the range of history than any other in Europe. An old map of the twelfth century shows that Texel and Vlieland, and the other islands now forming a crescent along the coast, were joined to the mainland. The river Ysel at that time passed into the sea through the narrow channel between Texel and the promontory of North Holland. The Vlie similarly had its outlet through a channel north of the present Vlieland. In the middle of the old northern province of Holland the Lake of Flevo was situated. This was an inland water of the same kind as Frisian broads at the present time. As the result of a great flood in the autumn of 1170 the lowlands along the rivers began to disappear, and in the course of the next two centuries nearly a million acres of land had become submerged. By the middle of the fifteenth century there was left the Zuyder Zee of the present time, with the islands, to mark the great encroachment of the sea on the old Frisian country. Before the time when their history began the Frisians extended westward to the Rhine, whose outlet is at Katwijk, and much farther to the northward, where their descendants still occupy the North Frisian Islands and the opposite coast of Schleswig. They and the Goths of the Baltic coasts were the greatest maritime nations of Northern Europe in the early centuries A. D. The old Frisian settlements, indeed, extended into the Baltic, where they came into contact with the Goths, Danes, Wends, and other nations. This was the direction of their early trade, by which they were brought into commercial connection with the Eastern trade route. The Scandinavian ratio of the value of gold to silver – 1 to 8 – which prevailed in ancient Frisia in the payment of the gold wergelds of the district near the Weser in a silver equivalent,(1) appears to be satisfactory proof of this commercial intercourse. It was without doubt from the Frisian coast that many expeditions started for the coast of Britain, that resulted in the conquest of the country and the settlement of new races of people in it. Much has been written about the Anglo-Saxon settlement, but little has been told of the part which the Frisians played in this great migration. Some English historians only tell us of their settlements on the Scotch coast in the Firth of Forth. The evidence is, however, abundant that the part they palyed in the settlement of England was hardly second to that of nay race. They were probably included in the designation Saxon within the confederacy of the Saxon invaders, and as they were the chief maritime nation of North Germany at that time there can be no doubt that Frisian ships were used.
The settlement of some Frisians on the east coast of Britain in the time of the Empire is probable from Ptolemy`s reference to the Parisi in the Holderness district, and the Teutonic equivalence of his name, Farisi.
Procopius also, the Greek historian of the sixth century,(2) says that three very populous nations occupied Britain – the Angles, the Britons, and the Frisians. Their migration across the North Sea certainly began at an early date. By the middle of the sixth century there were scattered colonies of Angles and Frisians occupying districts of the east coast of Britain from the Tees to the Forth, and the kingdom of Bernicia was formed by Ida, the capital, Bamburgh, being placed on a headland not far from the Tweed.(3) The selection of such a site for the seat of government of a kingdom founded by a maritime people was characteristic. The Frisian country itself was a coast country, not extending far inland beyond easy access to and from the sea. It was natural, therefore, that the new settlements which such a people founded should be grouped so as to reproduce as much as possible facilities for communication similar to those to which they were accustomed. Their communications were kept up mainly by the sea, and the position of Bamburgh, as the seat of government for the settlers along the coast, points to this as well as to the site being chosen for defence. These were not the earliest of their race that came to Britain, and probably not the earliest settlers, for in the later Roman period we have a record of some colonies of Frisians and other German tribes introduced for military purposes.
Procopius mentions the inhabitants of Britain under the names `Angeloi, Phrissones, and those surnamed from the Island Brittones.` He thus calls the same people Angles and Frisians, whom Welsh authors, writing about the same date, call Saxons.
The Frisian occupancy of the coast of North Germany was probably continuous from North Holland to South Denmark, and there must be assumed to have been a fringe of them along the whole sea-board of Hanover and Holstein.(4) They were the neighbouring nation to the Angles, the Frisians lying west and the Angles east. The approach of the two people towards identity of race or origin is probably near, but there is no proof of any Frisian calling himself an Angle or visa versa. Both may have been called by the same name by a third nation, or both may have been called Saxon.(5) This consideration is important in reference to the use of the names Angles and Saxons as those of allied peoples and not merely of tribes or nations.
The Frisian people, both in Schleswig and in Holland, are an example of an ancient race in the last stage of gradual absorption by the more vigorous nations with which they are in close contact. Other races which were much concerned with the conquest and settlement of England as parts of confederacies have similarly become absorbed in the nationalities of their more vigorous neighbours, and their languages have entirely disappeared. Of this, the case of the Wends, who occupied the coast of Pomerana, is an example. The Old Saxons, also, were relatively greater than the Saxons of Germany at the present day, and their language has been absorbed in the German. One of the most remarkable disappearances of any ancient race is that of the Lombards or Longobards, who were neighbours of the Saxons. All that remains to remind us of them is the name Lombardy. The race and their language have entirely disappeared, and been absorbed by the Italian. A similar disappearance is that of the Burgundians. Their original home was in the East of Europe, in and near the Isle of Bornholm in the Baltic and on the adjacent coasts, but as a result of their southern migration the race has been absorbed, and the names Bornholm and Burgundy alone remain to tell us of their existence in North Eastern Europe and in Eastern France.
At the present time the North Frisian area, which is separated by a long stretch of coast from East Friesland, comprises the western part of Schleswig and the islands opposite. The North Frisian area comprised the parts about Husum, Bredsted, and Tondern, on the mainland of Schleswig, where the Frisians were distributed over some thirty-eight parishes, which, along with the inhabitants of the islands, gave a population in1852 of about 30,000. In this northern province of Germany, as in Holland the same process of absorption is going on, and more rapidly perhaps in Schleswig than in East Friesland. In these disappearing Frisians we may see the last remnants of a vigorous ancient nation, largely concerned in the conquest and settlement of England, and numerously represented among the ancestors of the English people.
Several dialects of the Frisian language still survive, and a characteristic suffix for their place-names is the termination –um. This is the equivalent of the English –ham and the German –heim. In Friesland itself the places with names ending in –um are abundant. Within a few miles of Leeuwarden sixteen out of twenty-four places have this characteristic ending.(6) In Northumberland many place-names terminate in –ham, but this suffix is in almost all instances pronounced –um
Latham says that there are one or two names ending in this Frisian suffix in the Danish Isles of Fyen and Sealand, and this may be a trace of former settlements on the Baltic. Their trading voyages certainly led them there, and they were so closely connected with the Goths and Angles in alliance, and probably in early commerce, that Frisian settlements on the Western Baltic coast probably existed. They were also in communication and in alliance, at least from time to time, with the Wends or Vandals of the south coast of the Baltic. Alliances, indeed, played a very important part in the earlier conquest of England by the Anglo-Saxons, and in its later conquest by the Danes. In both of these conquests the Frisians took part. Some came in the former period under the name of Angles or Saxons, in the latter under the name of Danes or Vikings. Our early chroniclers had more accurate traditions of who the Danes were than modern historians have fully recognised. Henry of Huntindon, in the passage in which he mentions the impiety of the Anglo-Saxons some time after their conquest, says : `The Almighty therefore let loose upon them the most barbarous of nations, the Danes and Goths, Norwegians and Swedes, vandals and Frisians.`(7) It will be noticed that he couples the Vandals with the Frisians, as if they were acting together in alliance.
Among the ancient Frisian books which exist is one known as the `Keran fon Hunesgena Ionde,` or Statutes of the country of the Hunsings, the date of which is about A. D. 1252, but the origin of the Statutes is of a far earlier period. There is also another old law-book in existence, known as the `Littera Brocmannorum,` or written law of the Brocmen.`(8) The chief part which remains of old Frisia is the country of the meres and broads of North Holland, but in assigning a locality to any ancient Frisian tribe, we must remember the great destruction of the land which has occurred within the range of history. The Brocmen certainly formed an old tribal division of the race, of sufficient importance to have laws of their own as distinct from their neighbours, and they, or some of their tribe, may have occupied part of East Friesland and probably some of the submerged country. Their country was also known as Brocmonnalond and Brockmerland.(9) The Frisian author Halbertsma tells us that the pagus of the Brocmen was in East Frissia. Among the Frisians there were certainly distinct tribes. Even as late as the twelfth century William of Malmesbury alludes to these ancient tribes in the expression, `all the Frisian nations.`(10) we may probably trace three of them, of which the Hunsings would be one, in the three different amounts of tribal wergelds or compensations for injuries that prevailed in the ancient Frisian territory westward of the river Weser.(11)
The close relationship between the Anglo-Saxon and Frisian languages has been shown by Halbertsma and by Siebs among Continental scholars, and by philologists in our country. This philological evidence supplies additional proof of the large Frisian element in the Anglo-Saxon settlement, in the comparison of the Frisian with the Old English or Anglo-Saxon language. On this subject Sweet says that the treatment of the letter a is almost identical in the two languages. In Frisian we find mon and noma alternating with man and nama (name). We find the same exceptional o in of, nosi (nose) – (O.E. nosu) – and the same change of a into ae ; that in Frisian, which has no ae, is written e, as ik brec, bec, kreft, corresponding to the Old English braec, baec, and kreft. These change, he says, do not occur in any of the other cognates, and could not, except by a most extraordinary coincidence, have been developed independently in English and in Frisian. They must therefore have already existed in Anglo-Frisian.(12) Frisian throws important light on the formation of the peculiar English diphthongs ae and oe. In the older Anglo-Saxon texts, including West Saxon, a is only diphthongised before r, and not before l, so that we have the typical forms ald and heard. In the oldest glossaries hard for heard is exceptional ; but in a few old Northumbrian fragments hard predominates. The Frisian language similarly agrees in preserving a before l in al, half, galga, etc., while before r it is written e, doubtless for ae, as herd for haerd, the Anglo-Saxon heard. The change of the word hard into haerd is parallel to that of the change of bac into baec.(13) The resemblances to be found between the languages still spoken by the scattered remnants of the ancient Frisian nation and that of our Saxon forefathers are many, and leave no room for doubt of their very close connection. One remarkable word they had in common, and which has not been found in any other old Germanic language, is sunnstede for the solstice. The Frisian and Old English also evolved earlier than German their common term for equinox, Anglo-Saxon evenniht, Frisian evennaht.
We can trace various tribes of ancient Frisians-viz., the Hunsings, the Brovmen, the Huntanga, and the Chaucians or Hocings, and others. These people appear all to have been designated at times as Frisians, and at other times by their own special or tribal names. The Chaucians, however, were a populous race, and maybe regarded in some respects as a separate nation in close connection with, and never in opposition to, the Frisians. They were seated in the country between the Weser and the Elbe. The name Cuxhaven at the mouth of the Elbe is one which was probably derived from the Chaucians, and has come down to us as that of a place situated in their old country. The Hunsings were the same people as the Hunni mentioned by Bede(14) as one of the tribes by which England was settled. The country they occupied was a district in the province of Groningen, in the North of Holland, where the river Hunse flows from the south is, or was within the last century, known by its old name as the `District of Hunsing.`(15) The `Hundings` also are alluded to in the `Traveller`s Song,` Hundingum being mentioned as if the people were a separate tribe. The Phundusii, also mentioned by Ptolemy, were probably the same people at an earlier date, although located by him further to the north.(16) Hunnaland and Friesland are mentioned among the counties the Norse Vikings ravaged.(17) The pagus of the Huntanga, apparently, was located between the River Hunte in Oldenburg and the province of Groningen.(18) The name Hun, Hune, or Hunni is one which in the sense of giant prevails in the popular traditions of North Germany. Grimm(19) tells us that it is especially characteristic of the prehistoric traditions of Westphalia, and that it extends as far westward as the Groningen country and the river Drenth in Holland. Barrows and Dolmens, known as giant hills and giant tombs, are also called in these parts of Europe hunebedde and hunebedden, `bed` being commonly used for `grave.` Another country of the Hunni has been identified by some Northern writers with the northern part of Jutland, where a few place-names that contain the word Hune still survive. As the Frisians formerly extended much further north than their present limit in Schleswig, the occurrence of these names maybe quite consistent with the later connection of the same name with the Frisian Hunsings. It is quite certain that the name is a very ancient one, probably as old as that of Frisians themselves.
From these circumstances and references we may see that the Hune or Huni name was probably applied to some of the inhabitants of Schleswig, as well as to some in East Friesland. In the eighth century we read of the boundaries of the Hune in the south part of Denmark.(20) There is a reference also to the forest which separates Hunaland(21) from Reidgotaland, the latter name having been identified as referring to Jutland. In the province of Drenthe in Holland, where the river Hunse has its source, there still exists a remnant of a more ancient population than the old Frisian. These people are of different physical characters from their neighbours. They are broad-headed, while the true Frisians are long-headed. They are brown in aspect, while the Frisians are fair, and they are supposed to be descendants of a remnant of the very ancient brown race of Europe who were left when their country was overrun at a remote period by people of the gothic or Germanic stock. We have no knowledge of the physical characters of the hunsings or Hunni mentioned by Bede, but as these brown people of Holland who are to be found in Drenthe and Overijssel occupy the country which was in part occupied by the Hunsings, there may have been some connection between them.
Among the tribes or allies of the Friians the most important was the Chauci or Chaucians. Tacitusmentions them as living on both sides of the Weser. Those settled between the Weser and the Elbe he called Chauci majors ; and those on the west of the Weser, but higher up the river, Chauci minors.(22) His description of them is that of a considerable nation. He says that the land from Hessia was under the dominion of, and inhabited by, chauci. He has left two accounts of them somewhat different, but that in his `Germania` is believed to have been written later than that in his `Annals,1 or `history,` and it may well have been that before writing his later account he had had opportunities of learning more about them and correcting his previous statements. He says that the Chauci never existed wars nor harassed their neighbours, and that they wished to support their grandeur by justice. This description agrees with the character of the Frisians, and may perhaps be taken to refer also to them.(23) The accounts which Tacitus gives of the German people between the Rhine and the Elbe are of more value than those beyond the Elbe, for in the former case he wrote from information collected from people who had actually travelled through the countries, which in the latter was probably not the case, as the countries were further removed from the Roman influence.24)
The question may here suggest itself : What have these Chauci or Chaucians to do with the English settlements ? I see no reason to doubt that they had a considerable share in it. Kemble found near Stade, in the part of ancient Frisia occupied by the Chaucians, and also far up the Weser, certain mortuary urns of a kind that is rare or unknown in other parts of Germany, but known to occur in Suffolk, Warwickshire, Derbyshire, the Isle of Wight, and other parts of England,(25) and the Chaucian name apparently survives in many old English place-names.
Ptolemy`s account of these people agrees in regard to their locality with that of Tacitus. He says that they were contiguous to the Frisii, and, like them, extended along the coast, but also further inland. He tells us also that the Frisii lay in front of the Angrivarii, who, as we have seen, were a tribe of the Saxons, for these Angrivarii of the earlier centuries were the same as the Angarians or Engern people of Carlovingian time. Ptolemy says that the chauci reached to the Elbe.(26) The survival of such a name as Cuxhaven in their old country is significant, the first syllable cux having come from Chauci. This etymology, which has generally been adopted,(27) is important in reference to the traces of the Chaucians which maybe found in England. Here in an ancient Chaucian region a survival of the old tribal or national name exists in the form Cux. In various parts of England where Frisians settled we shall also find it.
The name under which the Chaucian are mentioned in the Sagas is that of Hocings. In Beowulf we read of them under this name. Word for word, says Latham, this word Hocing is held to be that of Chauci by all, or most, who have written on the subject. Hocing, however, with its suffix –ing, means not so much a Chaucus as of Chauch blood.(28) The identity of the names is established by the ancient sound of ch being equivalent to that of h. This identification will be of use in endeavouring to unravel the threads in the tangled Skein of information which has come down to us relating to the people concerned in the English settlement. The chuaci as a nation have long since disappeared, and were probably absorbed by the Franks of Germany. Some of them, no doubt, migrated to England, where they were absorbed in the Old English race. If we look for traces of them in England through the names by which they were known in their Continental home, we shall discover many parts of the country in which small colonies of them probably settled. As regards their alternative name Hocings, philologists give us several examples of the equivalence of the early ch and h sounds in these tribal or national names. South of the chauci another great tribe of German people known as the chatty were situated, from which, according to German philologists, in which others concur, the name Hesse has been derived. The Hesians are the descendants of the ancient Chatti or Hatti. They are mentioned under the names Chattuari, Attuarii, and Hetware, In the name Attuarii, as Latham has pointed out, the ch sound disappears altogether. The name Hesse also, says Latham, word for word is Chatti.(29) The Old Frisian ch was equivalent to the Anglo-Saxon h.(30) We may therefore accept the identity of the sounds chauc- and hoc- in the names Chauci and Hocings, and this will be of interest in reference to traces of them in England. At some time during the period of the growth of the Frank confederation the Chaucians assumed the name of Franks, and their name disappeared from history.
Pliny`s description of part of Frisia and the condition of some of its inhabitants may be overdrawn, but there is in it a sufficient elements of truth to warrant the belief that foreign expeditions, with a view to settlements in a land more favoured by nature, could not have been unpopular among them. Two or three days sail would bring them to the coasts of Britain, where, if they could form colonies sufficiently strong to resist attacks, they could at least find a better subsistence, with more favourable conditions of life than those Pliny describes. He says : `In this spot the wretched natives occupying either the tops of hills or artificial mounds of turf raised out of reach tides build their small cottages, which appears like sailing-vessels when the water covers the circumjacent ground, and like wrecks when it has retired. For fuel they use a kind of mud taken up by hand and dried rather in the wind than the sun, and with this earth they heat their food and warm their bodies, stiffened by the rigorous North. Their only drink is rain-water collected in ditches at the thresholds of their doors.` The references to peat-digging, which is still extensively carried on in Friesland, the mounds on which their houses were built, and the appearance of the country, shows that this was a description of an eye-witness. The terp mounds on which the ancient habitations in the meres of Old Frisia were constructed have been shown to be composed largely of deposits due to accumulations under ancient pile dwellings, and many of them have been removed for manures and agricultural purposes.(31)
As already mentioned, the original home of the ancestors of the Frisians, Jutes, and Danes appears to have been in the Scandian peninsula, which Ptolemy, the geographer of the second century, understood to have been an island. He places the nations called the Phiresii, Gutae, and Dauciones all within Scandia. The migration of the Phiresii south-ward has left its traces in certain parts of Jutland, and appears to have been such a very early one that it occurred before the invention of runes by their neighbours the Goths, for no fixed runic monuments have ever been found in any part of Old Frisia. The Daucones were the Dacians or Danes, and they migrated, apparently, after the invention of runes, for fixed monuments with runes were found in Denmark. As already pointed out, one of the strongest proofs of the Scandian connection of the Angles of Northumbria is that they took with them to England a knowledge of runic writing, and have left examples of their runic inscriptions on fixed stone monuments. Not so the Frisians, who, though allied with the Angles, were behind them in the knowledge of letters. The physical appearance of the Frisians at the present day bears witness TO THE Northern origin of their race. Beddoe says : `They are an extremely fair and very comely people. I found the Frisians from the Zuyder Zee through Groningen (a Saxonised district) to beyond Ems, a taller, long-faced, more universally blonde and light-eyed folk than the Saxons, the latter being often very hazel-eyed, even when their hair is light.(32)
Among the indications that communication between the early Saxon people and those of the same races from whom they sprang was not wanting is the story of the early missionary work of the Old English Christians. The Frisians were pagans long after the conversion of those of their race who descended from the early Frisian settlers in England. The Frankish monks had endeavoured in vain to convert them, and failed, perhaps through difficulties with their language. The Anglo-Saxon missionaries, being more allied in race, met with some success.(33) William of Malmesbury tells us how their final conversion was brought about. He says : `The ancient Saxons and all the Frisian nations were converted to the faith of Christ through the exertions of King Charles,`(34) but we know that in the conversions which followed the conquests of Charlemagne the sword was the chief instrument. It was by far different means that some hundred and fifty years earlier the band of Anglo-Saxon missionaries, of whom Wilfred was the first, began their journeys into Germany, impelled by Christian zeal, and it can hardly be doubted by the sentiment also of common racial descent. They turned their energies to the conversion of their Frisian and Saxon cousins to the faith which the English people had themselves so lately adopted.
Wilfred and Willibord, his pupil, winfrith or Boniface, Leofwine, the converter of the Saxons, Willehad of Northumbria, and the brothers Willibald and Wunibald, are but names to the political historian of the Continental nations from which the Anglo-Saxon race sprang. They stand out prominently, however, in the early ecclesiastical history of Northern Germany, where they are, even to the present day, as honoured as those of Augustine, Birinus, and Paulinus in England.
From such a country as ancient Frisia was, emigration, as the population increased, was a necessity. The story of Hengist and the custom of the expulsion of a number of the young people of his country may have reasonably prevailed in Friesland. Whether they settled in England under the names Angles and Jutes, or under tribal names of their own, it is certain that large numbers of Frisians must have become English colonists under the Saxonnmae. The old chroniclers are, indeed, at a loss whether to make Hengist a Frisian or a Saxon. One of them says :
“Ein hiet Engistus een Vriase een Sas
Die vten lande verdruen was.”(35)
(One was named Engist a Frisian or a Saxon, who was driven away out of his land.)
There is direct evidence of early communication between ancient Frisia and England in the discovery in Friesland and Holland of movable objects with inscriptions on them in early runic characters peculiar to England. At Harlingen, in Friesland, a bracteates was found which has on it large clear runes, the type of the A (F) (not the true letter but near it) being provincial English, which Stephens assigns to the fifth century. He says it was doubtless struck in England, or by an English workman in Scandinavia.(36) In Holland an English runic coin has also been found.(37)
The establishment of Frisian colonies on the north-eastern coasts of England and the southeast of Scotland during the early centuries of our age, before the end of the Roman rule in Britain, is supported by circumstantial evidence so strong that it cannot be doubted. It will be summarised in the chapters on Northumbria. With the early Frisian colonists there must have been others of Anglian descent, among whom a knowledge of runic writing was known, as proved by inscriptions still existing.
In all countries of which early records exist we find trace of the custom of giving to people the same names as those of the tribes and clans to which they belonged. Many instances may also be found of men, when they lived as foreigners among people of another race, being known by the name of their own nation. Some of these old tribal clan or national names have come down as surnames to modern times. During the period of the Anglo-Saxon settlement it could scarcely have been otherwise in our own country. Men must have been commonly designated by their tribal or clan names if they lived among neighbours of another tribe who were unacquainted with the names by which these men called themselves. Such names are descriptive of the individuals to whom they were applied, and as in the early Anglo-Saxon period a tun or a ham was commonly named after that of the head of the family living in it, it is difficult to avoid the conclusion that many of the names of these early tuns and hams must be the same as the tribal and clan names of their first occupants. Personal names derived from those of tribes are older than those derived from countries or districts in which tribes settled. To call a man after the name of his tribe or clan in the time before the tribal wanderings of the German and Northern people had ceased was the most natural way to distinguishing him. The occurrence of so many names of people called Hun ans Hune, or compounds of them, in Anglo-Saxon literature points to tribal people of that name having taken part in the settlement of England. The Hunsings and the people of the Huntanga tribe we can connect with the settlement, and with the Hunni mentioned by Bede. Many persons bearing Hun or Hune names are very frequently mentioned in Anglo-Saxon records – e.g., Hunfrith fifteen times, and Hunred twelve times. Hunman and Huneman both occur. Huna, Hunes, hune, Hungar, Hunbeorht, Hunni, and Hunding, are some of the forms of these personal names. Some of them are probably ancestral names repeated. There are more than 150 known instances of designations of this kind.(38) Even if we suppose that some persons who bore them obtained them from some other origin than that of the tribal name or that of an ancestor, the number which in all probability was originally derived from the tribal names of the Hunsings or the Huntanga will still be large. The people of these tribes were Frisins, and their settlements in England were both early and late. The last of their, ancient immigrations, or of people of the same descent, into England took place in the twelfth century, when, as a result of inundations, many were obliged to seek new homes. It was early in that century that Fleming settled in parts of South Wales, where they were absorbed among the English settlers, and their language became lost in the English speech, as did that of the settlers centuries earlier.
The discovery of a large number of skulls at Bremen, of the same period as that of the Anglo-Saxon, has been referred to. Those intermediate in length were named Batavian or Frisian. Beddoe, in summarising the evidence of these ancient skulls in connection with the light they throw on the racial characters of the Old English people, says that the Frisian or so-called Batavian skulls have characters that resemble those of the Anglo-Saxons. `John Bull,` says Beddoe, `is of the Batavian type,`(39) an opinion from so distinguished an anthropologists which is valuable evidence in support of the conclusion that there must have been a very large Frisian admixture in the Old English race.
1 Seebohm, F., `Tribal Custom in Anglo-Saxon Law,` 207.
2 Procopius, `De Bell Goth.,` lib. Iv., 20.
3 Skene, W. F., `Celtic Scotland,` i. 151.
4 Latham, R. G., `The Germania of Tacitus,` p. 242.
5 Latham, R. G., loc. Cit., p. 241.
6 Van Langenheuzen`s Map, 1843, quoted by Latham, R. G., `Germania,` Notes, p. 119.
7 Henry of Huntingdon`s Chronicle, Bohn`s ed., p. 148.
8 Bosworth, Joseph, `Origin of the English, Germanic, and Scandinavian Languages,` p. 61.
9 Halbertsma, J. H., `Lexicon Frisicum.`
10 Malmesbury`s Chronicle, book i., chap. iv.
11 Seebohm, F., `Tribal Custom in Anglo-Saxon Law,` 199.
12 Sweet, H., `Dialects and Prehistoric Forms of Old English,` Trans. Philol. Soc., 1875-1876, p. 562.
13 Sweet, H., `Dialects and Prehistoric Forms of Old English,` Trans. Philol. Soc., 1875-1876, p. 563.
14Bede, `Hist. Eccles.,` v., chap. ix.
15 Bosworth, J., loc. Cit., p. 65.
16 Ptolemy`s Map of Germany, reproduced in Eton`s Origin of English history,` second ed.
17 Du Chaillu, `Viking Age,` i. 503.
18 Monumenta Germaniae, Script. Iii. 38.
19 Grimm, J., `Teutonic Mythology,` 523.
20 Monumenta Germaniae, i. 34.
21 Kemble, J. M., `Saxons in England,` quoting Sogur, i. 495.
22 Latham, R. G., `The Germania of Tacitus,` Map.
23 Bosworth, joseph, loc. Cit., p. 48.
24 Latham, R. G., loc. Cit., `Prolegomena,` xv.
25 Beddoe, J., `Races in Britain,` p. 46.
26 Ptolemy, ii. 2.
27 Latham, R. G., loc. Cit., 242.
28`Germania of Tacitus,` edited by R. G. Latnam, 243.
29 Latham, R. G., `The English Language,` 5th ed., p. 242.
30 Ibid., 93. Also maetzner, E., `English Grammar,` i. 146-148.
31 Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot., xxiii. 98-100.
32 Beddoe, J., loc. Cit., pp. 39, 40.
33 Bosworth, J., loc. Cit., p. 94.
34 William of Malmesbury`s Chronicle, book i., chap. iv.
35 Maerlant, quoting by Bosworth, `Origin of the English, German, and Scandinavian Languages,` p. 52.
36 Stephens, G., `Old Northern Runic Monuments,` ii. 555.
37 Ibid., ii. 568.
38 Birch, W. De Gray, `Index Saxonicus,` and Searle, W. G., `Onomasticon Anglo-Saxonicum.`
39 Haddon, A. C., `The Study of Man,` 84, quoting Beddoe.
Taken from the book = `Origin of the Anglo-Saxon Race.`
Author = T. W. Shore.