Byzantium Timeline

Timelines1

Timeline of Byzantium / Catholic & Apostolic Church `Orthodox`

306
Constantine I acclaimed emperor at York, Northern Britain.

312
Constantine’s victory at the battle of the Milvian Bridge outside Rome.

325
First Ecumenical council at Nicaea.

330
11th May, inauguration of the city of Constantine, Constantinople. This is the new capital of the Roman Empire on the existing site of the ancient Greek city Byzantium: As seen renamed Constantinople and it would become the capital of the Byzantine Empire.

337
Passing on of Constantine I with a Christian funeral.

381
Second Ecumenical council at Constantinople.

395

The Roman Empire divides in half, with the Eastern Roman Empire based in Constantinople and the Western Roman Empire based in Rome/Ravenna.

412/13
Constantinople expanded by new walls.

431

Third Ecumenical council at Ephesus.

451
Fourth Ecumenical council at Chalcedon.

474-475

Zeno emperor in east.

475-476

Basiliscus usurps power in the east.

476

The Western Empire falls with Romulus Augustulus dieing: The Eastern Empire survives and is now labelled as the Byzantine Empire.

476-491

Zeno (restored).

491-518

Anastasios I emperor in east.

493-526

Theoderic rules Ostrogothic kingdom of Italy.

c.503

Anastasios recognizes authority, as representative of the Romans, of Clovis, King of the Franks.

507-711

Kingdoms of Visigoths in Spain.

518-527

Justin I

526

Justinian`s reign begins. He reconquers parts of the fallen Western Empire (Africa and Italy, Spain). He codifies the previous Roman laws into one document. Constantinople is the most glorious city in Europe, with 500,000 inhabitants. The Hague Sofia is constructed. Justinian is the last emperor to use the title “Caesar”.

533-534

Belisarius reconquers Africa (pacification completed in 540s).

534

Belisarius begins conquest of Italy (war lasts until 553).

537

Dedication of the new church of the Holy Wisdom (Hagia Sophia) in Constantinople.

540

Persian king Chosroes I takes Antioch in Syria.

c542
Bubonic plague spreads throughout Mediterranean.

c550

Avars establish rule over Slavs north of the Black Sea and Danube.

552

Narses defeats Tolila and last Ostrogothic resistance in Italy.

c553

Reconquest of south-east Spain from Visigoths.

558

Treaty with Avars and agreement to pay `subsidies`.

562

`Fifty-year peace` signed with Persia.

564-591

Wars with Persia.

c566

Slavs begin to infiltrate across Danube frontier; pressure on frontier fortresses from Avars.

c568

Lombards driven westward from Danube, invade Italy, eventually taking Northern Italy from the Byzantines.

572

Lombards besiege Ravenna.

577

Major invasion of Balkans led by Avars.

584, 586

Avaro-Slav attacks on Thessalonika.

591-602

Gradual success in pushing Avars back across Danube.

602

Maurice overthrown, Photas proclaimed emperor.

603

War with Persia; situation in Balkans deteriorates.

610

Heraclius, son of exarch of Africa at Carthage overthrows Photas and becomes emperor. Temporary possession of Mesopotamia. The same system is installed. The Empire`s language changes to Greek. Eventual lost of Syria, Palestine, and Egypt to Muslims.

611-620s

Central and northern Balkans lost.

614-619

Persians occupy Syria, Palastine and Egypt.

622

Mohammed leaves Mecca for Medina (the Hijra).

622-627

Heraclius campaigns in east against Persians.

626
Siege of Constantinople by combined Avaro-Slavs and Persian forces fails.

626-628

Heraclius defeats Persian forces in east.

629

Peace with Persia.

c634

Arabs begins raids into Palestine.

634-646

Arab conquest and occupation of Syria, Palestine, Mesopotamia, Egypt (636-battle of Gabitha/Yarmuk).

c644

Beginning of long-term raids and plundering expeditions against Byzantine Asia Minor.

655

Sea battle of Phoenix, Byzantines defeated by Muslim fleet.

662

Constans II leads expedition through Balkans into Italy, takes up residence in Sicily.

668

constans assassinated; Mizizios proclaimed emperor in Sicily loyal to Constatine IV.

674-678

Arab blockade and yearly sieges of Constantinople. First recorded use of `liquid fire` (Greek fire), to destoy Arab fleet.

679-680

Arrival of Bulgars on Danube, defeat of Byzantine forces under Constantine IV.

680/81
Sixth Ecumenical Council at Constantinople. The first Six Ecumenical councils are acknowledged as the basis of the Catholic and Aspostolic Church known as Orthodox/right way.

680

loss of north Africa to Muslims.

685-692

Truce between Caliphate and Byzantium (Arab civil war).

691-692

Quinisext or Trullan council at Constantinople.

693

Muslims attack Constantinople, and defeat at Sebastoupolis.

698

Carthage falls to Arabs final loss of Africa.

717/18
Siege of Constantinople; Leo, general of Anatolikon, seizes power and crowned as Leo III.

721

Regains control of Asia Minor from the Muslims.

726

Emperor Leo III bans the use of Icons, thus the beginning of the iconoclast controversy.

739-740

Leo and Constantine defeat Arab column at Akroinon.

739

earthquake hits Constantinople.

741

Artabasdos, Leo`s son-in-law, rebels against Constantine V and seizes Constantinople.

743-744

Artabasdos defeated.

c746

Plague in Constantinople.

750

Abbasid revolution, removal of Umayyads from power, capital of Caliphate moved to Baghdad.

750s-770s

Constantine launches major expeditions against Bulgars and Arabs.

792

Byzantines under Constantine VI defeated by Bulgars at Markellai.

797

Constantine VI deposed by mother Irene; blinded and dies.

787
Seventh Ecumenical Council of Nicaea.

800

Charlemagne, King of the Franks, is crowned “Emperor of the Romans” by Pope Leo III in Rome. for the first time in 300 years, there is an emperor of the “East” and an emperor of the “West”.

802

Irene deposed by chief finance minister Nikephores (Nikephores I).

811

Nikephores defeated and killed by forces under Khan Krum after initially successful campaign in Bulgaria.

813

Bulger victories over Byzantine forces.

815
Leo V convenes synod in Constantinople at the Iconoclast Council in Hague Sophia where iconoclasm is reintroduced as official policy.

821-823

Rebellion of Thomas `the Slav`.

824

Beginning of Arab conquest of Sicily and of Crete.

838

Arab invasion of Asia Minor; siege and sack of Amorion.

843

Council held in Constantinople to reaffirm acts of Seventh Ecumenical Council; empress regent Theodores and chief couriers restores images; end of official iconoclasm.

850s

Missionary activity in Bulgaria.

858-67
Patriarch Photios, first reign, conversion of the Bulgars and baptism of Khan Boris.

860
Rus` (Viking) attack on Constantinople. mission to Chazars of St. Cyril.

863

Major Byzantine victory over Arabs at Poson in Anatolia.

864

Conversion of Bulgar Khan and leaders. council invoked by Basil I at Constantinople to settle Photian schism: Photios deposed, Ignatios, his predecessor, reinstated. Bulgaria placed under Constantinopolitan ecclesiastical jurisdiction (contrary to papal demands).

869/70
Eighth Ecumenical Council in Constantinople.

900c

Final loss of Sicily; Bulgar expansionism under Tsar Symmeon; war with Byzantines.

917

Bulgars under Symeon overrun Thrace on victory at the River Achelo.

923-944

Byzantine conquests and eastward expansionism led by general johnKourkouas.

924

Bulgars unsuccessfully attack Constantinople.

941
Prince Igor of Kiev attacks Bithynia and later attacks Constantinople: The Byzantines destroys the Russian fleet.

960-961

Recovery of Crete under general Nikephorus Phokas.

963

Major Byzantine offensive in east, creation of new frontier regions.

965

Nikephorus II captures Tarsus and Cyprus.

969

Nikephorus II captures Alleppo and Antioch.

969-976

Reign of John I Tzimiskes. Continuation of eastern expansion; defeat of Bulgars with the help of Rus` at Silistra (971).

975

John I invades Palestine, takes several towns and fortresses, but withdraws.

976

Basil II becomes Emperor.

985c

Bulgar resistance in western Balkans leads to growth of Bulgarian empire under Tsar Samuel.

989
Baptism of Vladimar of Kiev and marriage of Anna Porphyrogennetos.

990-1019

Basil II Crushes Bulgar resistance; Bulgar reincorporated into empire, Danube new frontier in north.

992

Venetians granted extensive trading rights in the Byzantine Empire, this causes riots in Constantinople towards the Venetians out of resentment of this granting and the reason why the 4th Crusade attacked Constantinople lead by the Dogue of Venice in revenge.

995

Basil II reconquers Syria from the Muslims.

996

Basil II reconquers Greece from the Bulgars.

1014

Basil II destroys the Bulgars army, earning the epithet Bulgaroktonos (“Bulgar Slayer”)

1022

Armenian territories annexed to empire

1034
Harald Hadrada arrives in Constantinople with Varangians

1034-1041

Michael VI takes first steps in debasement of gold currency.

1054
Schism between Constantinople and Rome. When the Roman Catholic Church was formed and declaring all other Christians outside their church were heretics and declared war on them, this included the mother church of what is known as the Orthodox church.

1055

Loss of Southern Italy to the French/Normans the stormtroopers of the new Roman Catholic church, also Seljuks take Bagdad.

1066

Many English-Anglo-Saxons come to Constantinople after their defeat at Senlac ridge, many become part of the Varagian Guard.

1071

Romanos VI defeated at Manzikert to the Seljuk Turks. Permanent loss of most of Asia Minor/ central Anatolia. (Seljuk Turks part of the Turkic peoples, seemed to have originated from Central Asia possibly near the Altay mountain range being pushed out by the Mongols). French/Normans take Bari.

1070c

Major Petcheneg advances into Balkans; civil war within empire.

1075

Loss of Syria to Muslims.

1081

Alexios Komnenos rebels and defeats Nikephorus III and crowned emperor

1082-1084

French/Norman invasion of western Balkan provinces.

1087

Byzantines defeat in Thrace.

1091

Seljuk-Petcheneg siege of Constantinople; defeat of Petchenegs.

1095

Alexius appeals to Urban II at Council of Piacenza for help against the Turks. The First Crusade is proclaimed at Council of Clermont.

1096

Crusaders arrive at Constantinople. The Crusaders are successful, but eventually withdraw from co-operation with the Byzantines when the Emperor allows a besieged city to be taken but with no harm to the citizens the French/Normans are infuriated with this action.

c1097

First Crusade; Seljuks defeated.

1098-1099

Jerusalem captured; Latin principalities and Kingdom of Jerusalem established in Palestine and Syria.

1108

Alexios Defeats French/Normans under Bohemund.

1111

Commercial privileges granted to Pisa.

1121

Reconquest of southwestern Asia Minor.

1030s

Alliance with German empire against French/Normans of southern Italy.

1138-1142

Byzantine confrontation with Crusader principality of Antioch.

1143-1180

Manuel I Komnenos: pro-western poliics become major factor in Byzantine foreign policy.

1146-1148

Second crusade.

1153

Treaty of Contanz between Frederick I (Barbarossa) and papacy against Byzantium.

1155-1157

Successful imperial campaign in Italy; commercial and political negotiations with Genoa.

1158-1159

Imperial forces march against Antioch.

1160c

Successful imperial political involvement in Italy against German imperial interests; Manuel defeats Hungarians and Serbs in Balkans and reaffirms imperial pre-eminence.

1169-1170

Commercial treaties with Pisa and Genoa.

1171c

Byzantina and Venetian hostilities increase.

1171176

Manuel plans crusade in east.

1176/79?

Defeat of imperial forces under Manual by Seljuk Sultanate of Rum Kilidj Asian at Myriokephalon, hopes of regaining Asia Minor are lost.

1180

Manuel dies; strong anti-western sentiments in Constantinople.

1182

Massacre of westerners, especially Italian merchants and their dependents in Constantinople.

1185

French/Normans sack Thessalonika; Andronikos Komnenos deposed.

1186c

Rebellion in Bulgaria, defeat of local Byzantine troops, establishment of second Bulgarian empire.

1187

Defeat of third crusade at battle of Horns of Hattin; Jerusalem retaken by Saladin.

1192

treaties with Genoa and Pisa.

1202

Fourth Crusade is assembled at Venice, the Dogue of Venice has the Crusade diverted from Egypt to attack Constantinople, here was his time for vengeance.

1203-1204

Fourth Crusade captures Constantinople. The Latin Empire of Constantinople is formed as well as many byzantine successor states. The capture of Constantinople in 1204 was a blow from which the Byzantines never fully recovered, the city was ransacked with its treasures being removed to Western Europe, desecrating the chair of the Patriarch with a whore being allowed to sit on it whilst they had a drunken orgy in the Hague Sophia whilst the Dogue of Venice died here his grave is within the Hague Sophia Church, now a museum.

1205

Latin emperor Baldwin I defeated by Bulgars.

1259

Michael VIII succeeds to throne in empire of Nicaea; Nicaean army defeats combined Latin and Epirot army at battle of Pelagonia; fortress town of Mistra handed over to Byzantines (Nicaea).

1261

The successor state of Nicaea recaptures Constantinople and restores the Byzantine Empire and with it the Orthodox Church ousting the Roman Catholic Church which was imposed upon the people by the Fourth Crusade.

1265

Pope invites Charles of Anjou, brother of Louis IX of France, to support him militarily against Manfred of Sicily and the Hohenstaufen power of Italy.

1266

Manfred of Sicily defeated at battle of Benevento by Charles of Anjou; Angevin plans, supported by papacy, evolve to invade and conquer the Byzantine empire.

1274

Gregory X summons second council of Lyons; representatives of Byzantine Church present; union of the Churches agreed, under threat of papally-approved invasion led by Charles of Anjou; union not accepted in the Byzantine empire.

1280-1337

Ottomans take nearly all remaining Byzantine possessions in Asia Minor (Ephesus 1328, Brusa 1316).

1282

`Sicilian vespers`; death of Charles of Anjou and end of his plans to invade Byzantium.

1303

Andronikos II hires Catalan company as mercenary troop.

1321-1328

Civil war between Andronikos II and Andronikos III.

1329

Turks take Nicaea.

1331-1355

Stefan Dushan Kral (King) of Serbia.

1337

Turks take Nicomedia.

c1340

Serbian empire under Stefan Dushan at height of power

1341-1347

Civil war between John V (supported by Serbs( and John VI  Kantakouzenos (with Turkish help).

1346

Stefan Dushan crowned emperor of Serbs and Greeks.

1347

Black death reaches Constantinople.

1354-1355

Civil war between john VI and John V (backed by Genoa); Ottomans employed as allies establish themselves in Gallipoli and Thrace.

1355

John VI abdicates and enters a monastery; John V proposes union of Churches to Pope.

1365

Ottomans take Adrianople, which becomes their capital.

1366

John V visits Hungary seeking support against Ottoman threat.

1371

Ottomans defeat Serbs in battle.

1373

John V forced to submit to Ottoman Sultan Murat I; John`s son Andronikos IV rebels, but is defeated.

1376-1379

Civil war in Byzantium: Andronikos IV rebels against John V, who is supported by his younger son Manuel.

1379

John V restored with Turkish and Venetian support.

1388

Bulgarians defeated by Ottomans,

1389

Battle of Kosovo: Serbs forced to withdraw by Ottomans, Serb empire ends; accession of Bayezit I.

1393

Turks capture Thessaly; battle of Trnovo, Bulgarian empire destroyed.

1396

Sigismund of Hungary organizes crusade against Ottoman threat, but is utterly defeated at Nicopolis.

1397-1402

Bayezit I besieges Constantinople, but army withdrawn when Turks defeated by Timur at battle of Ankara (1402).

1399-1402

Manuel II tours Europe to elicit military and financial support; in December 1400 he stayed as a guest of Henry IV in London.

1422

Murat II lays siege to Constantinople.

1423

Governor of Thessalonika ( a brother of John VIII) hands the city over to the Venetians.

1430

Thessalonika retaken by Ottomans; populace and Venetian garrison massacred.

1439

Council of Ferrara moves to Florence; union of Churches formally agreed by emperor John VIII, present at council.

1444

Hungarians and western crusaders, led by Vladislav of Hungary and Poland, defeated at battle of Varna; Vladislav killed in battle.

1448

John VIII dies; his brother Constantine, Despot of the Morea, succeeds as Constantine XI, with coronation at Mistra in 1449.

1451

Mehmet II becomes Sultan.

1452

Union of Churches proclaimed at Constantinople, this would later be rejected by the people of the Orthodox Church, it was the Roman Catholic Church which broke from the church not the other way round so it is for them to repent. and come back into the fold.

1453

Mehmet II lays siege to Constantinople; 29 May, Janissaries break through defences and permit main Ottoman army to enter city; Constantine XI, the last emperor, died in the fighting, and his body was never identified. The end of the Byzantine Empire.

1460

Mistra falls to the Turks.

1461

Trebizond falls to the Turks.